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David Alexander Gutiérrez Ramírez

Ana Isabel Restrepo Dorado

Ginna Vanessa Muñoz

Jarvin Buitrago Galíndez

Abstract

Antecedentes: La anemia de células falciformes (ACF) o drepanocitosis es una enfermedad mortal, diagnosticada regularmente en la adolescencia. No existen políticas de tamizaje temprano de ACF en Colombia. Objetivo: Reportar un caso de diagnóstico temprano de ACF por análisis clínico y radiográfico oral. Reporte del caso: A la consulta de la clínica odontológica de la Universidad Antonio Nariño (Popayán, Colombia) llega una paciente de etnia negroide de 9 años de edad, por sangrado en sus encías. En la valoración clínica, el índice de placa de O’Leary fue del 56,25 %. Se observó palidez palatal y sangrado al sondaje. Radiográficamente, en el maxilar inferior se observaron áreas multiloculares interradiculares en incisivos y primer molar izquierdo; además, había un patrón de escalera en el trabeculado óseo. Se ordenaron un hemograma y un extendido periférico que confirmaron hipocromía ligera y células falciformes positivas. Conclusiones: Aunque las manifestaciones clínicas y radiográficas orales no son patognomónicas de ACF, son una herramienta útil para realizar un diagnóstico temprano en odontología y ayudar a mejorar la calidad y esperanza de vida de los pacientes.Background: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) or drepanocytosis is a fatal disease that is often diagnosed during adolescence. In Colombia, there are not early screening policies for SCA. Purpose: Report a case of SCA that was early diagnosed through clinical examination and radiographs. Case report: A 9-year-old African-Colombian girl attended the Antonio Nariño University dental clinic in Popayan, Colombia, with bleeding gums. The clinical examination showed 56.25 % dental plaque (O’Leary Index), palatal paleness, and bleeding after probing. The radiographic analysis evidenced multilocular zones between incisor roots and left first molar, with a staircase trabecular pattern in the bone. Findings from hemogram and peripheral blood analysis showed light hypochromia and positive sickle cells. Conclusion: Even though oral clinical and radiographic findings are not pathognomonic of SCA, they are a useful to early diagnose and improve people quality of life and life expectancy.

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References
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How to Cite
Gutiérrez Ramírez, D., Restrepo Dorado, A., Muñoz, G., & Buitrago Galíndez, J. (2015). Detección precoz de anemia de células falciformes por medio de un diagnóstico clínico y radiográfico oral. Reporte de caso / Early Detection of Sickle Cell Anemia by oral Diagnosis and oral Radiographs. Case Report. Universitas Odontologica, 34(72), 67-74. https://doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.uo34-72.dpac
Section
Thematic Dossier
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