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Fabián Cárdenas https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2601-1993

Resumen

Este artículo sostiene que las Conclusiones de 2018 sobre la Identificación del Derecho Internacional Consuetudinario producidas por la Comisión de Derecho Internacional de la ONU constituyen un retroceso conceptual de la costumbre a la perspectiva teórica de la fuente que se originó con el Estatuto de la Corte Permanente de Justicia Internacional de 1920, trayendo así al presente las inconsistencias prácticas y teóricas del pasado. Aunque la Comisión tiene como propósito fundamental la codificación y el desarrollo del derecho internacional, este trabajo en particular resulta ser la expresión más anacrónica sobre la teorización de la costumbre internacional, pues retoma la perspectiva ortodoxa que casi cumple un centenario de existencia. Este artículo demuestra que, las Conclusiones, lejos de ser un aporte novedoso, son una regresión teórica, la cual, gracias al esfuerzo de la Comisión, parecen estar a punto de volver a retomar vigencia. Ante tal situación, este artículo sostiene que, a pesar de los esfuerzos de la Comisión, no hay una teoría unívoca sobre la costumbre internacional, sino que más bien existen un conjunto de perspectivas teóricas que proponen posibles aproximaciones sin que ninguna de ellas pueda considerarse como dogma. Con ese propósito, este artículo contextualiza y analiza el proceso de consolidación de dicha perspectiva ortodoxa, luego, presenta un conjunto de perspectivas alternativas que han teorizado sobre la fuente, y, finalmente, presente algunas críticas estructurales y específicas sobre las Conclusiones de la Comisión, lideradas por su Relator, Sir. Michael Wood.

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Keywords

Costumbre, Costumbre Internacional, Derecho Internacional Consuetudinario, Perspectiva Ortodoxa de la Costumbre, Derecho Internacional, Fuentes del Derecho Internacional, Práctica Estatal, Opinio Juris, Comisión de Derecho Internacional de la ONU

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Cómo citar
Cárdenas, F. (2020). ¿Un caso de “volver al ´futuro” ?: Las Conclusiones sobre la Identificación del Derecho Internacional Consuetudinario de la Comisión de Derecho Internacional de la ONU. Vniversitas, 69. https://doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.vj69.ucvf
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