Magdalena Bobowik http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2341-0665

Anna Wlodarczyk

Siu Lay-Lisboa


Research on the consequences of making attributions to prejudice for the psychological functioning of minority groups is still scare and rather inconsistent. In this study we set out to examine the consequences of making attributions to prejudice in response to social rejection for social wellbeing among immigrants in Spain. We tested this relationship and the mediating effects with representative samples of 1250 foreign-born immigrants who had lived for at least six months in the Basque Country, having been born in Bolivia, Colombia, Morocco, Romania, or Sub-Saharan African countries. The sample was drawn from public records and obtained through a probability sampling procedure by ethnicity with stratification by age and sex. We conducted mediation analyses using structural equation modeling (SEM) to verify whether the perceived ethnic discrimination effect on the five dimensions of social wellbeing was partially or completely explained by the attributions to prejudice. Our results indeed partially revealed that making attributions to prejudice protect social wellbeing form negative consequences of personal discrimination only the dimension of social contribution. In turn, attributions to prejudice explained the negative relationship between perceived discrimination and social acceptance and social actualization: that is, these dimensions of social wellbeing that reflect social trust. We discuss the results integrating social identity, social stigma, and positive psychology framework, through inclusion of societal aspects of wellbeing for measuring immigrants’ adaptation in the host society.



immigration, perceived discrimination, attributions to prejudice, wellbeing

Abramson, L.Y., Seligman, M.E.P., & Teasdale, J. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans. Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49-74

Abu-Rayya, H. M. (2007). Acculturation and its determinants among adult immigrants in France. International Journal of Psychology, 43(1), 1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207590701700537

Abu-Rayya, H. M., & Abu-Rayya, M. H. (2009). Acculturation, religious identity, and psychological well-being among Palestinians in Israel. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 33(4), 325-331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2009.05.006

Aierdi, X., Basabe, N., Blanco, C., & Oleaga, J.A. (2008). Población Latinoamericana en la CAPV 2007 [Latino population in The Basque Country]. Bilbao: Ikuspegi and UPV/EHU.http://www.ikuspegi-inmigracion.net/documentos/documentos_internos/pob_lat_2007_web.pdf

Basabe, N. & Bobowik, M. (2013). Estatus grupal, discriminación, y adaptación en inmigrantes latinoamericanos y africanos en España [Group status, discrimination and adjustment in Latino and African immigrants in Spain]. Psicoperspectivas, 12(1), 5-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.5027/psicoperspectivas-vol12-issue1-fulltext-237

Basabe, N., Páez, D., Aierdi, X., & Jiménez - Aristizabal, A. (2009). Calidad de vida, bienestar subjetivo y salud: Inmigrantes en la CAPV. Zumaia: Ikuspegi - Observatorio Vasco de Inmigración. Recuperado de http://www.ikuspegi.org/documentos/investigacion/es/3ikusgai_salud_inmigracion_ikuspegi. pdf ISBN: 978 - 84 - 9860 - 215 - 9

Basque Observatory of Immigration (2017). Panorámica 65 - Población de origen extranjero en la CAE 2017 [Panorámica 65 - Population of foreign origin in the CAE 2017]. Retrieved from http://www.ikuspegi.eus/documentos/panoramicas/es/panoramica65casOK.pdf

Blanz, M., Mummendey, A., Mielke, R., & Klink, A. (1998). Responding to negative social identity: A taxonomy of identity management strategies. European Journal of Social Psychology, 28(5), 697-729. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0992

Bobowik, M., Basabe, N., & Páez, D. (2014). "Heroes of adjustment": Immigrant's Stigma and Identity Management. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 41, 112-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2014.04.002

Bobowik, M., Basabe, N., & Páez, D. (2015). The Bright Side of Migration: Hedonic, Psychological, and Social Well-being in Immigrants in Spain. Social Science Research, 51, 189-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2014.09.011

Bobowik, M., Basabe, N., Páez, D., & Rosel, J. (2017). Status hierarchies among immigrants in Spain: Responding to migrant status through individualistic and collectivistic strategies and wellbeing (Manuscript submitted for publication).

Bobowik, M., Martinovic, B. Basabe, N., Barsties, L., & Wachter, G. (2017). “Healthy” Identities? Revisiting Rejection-Identification and Rejection-Disidentification Models among Voluntary and Forced Immigrants. European Journal of Social Psychology, special issue “Social Identities as Social Cures”. Accepted manuscript online. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2306

Branscombe, N. R., Schmitt, M. T., & Harvey, R. D. (1999). Perceiving pervasive discrimination among African Americans: Implications for group identification and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(1), 135-149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.4.709

Cheng, H., & Furnham, A. (2003). Attributional style and self-esteem as predictors of psychological well being. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 16(2), 121-130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515070302752

Crocker, J., & Major, B. (1989). Social stigma and self-esteem: The self-protective properties of stigma. Psychological Review, 96, 608-630.

Crocker, J., & Major, B. (1994). Reactions to stigma: The moderating role of justifications. In M. P. Zanna, & J. M. Olson (Eds.), Ontario symposium on personality and social psychology, Vol. 7. The psychology of prejudice (pp. 289-314). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Crocker, J., Major, B. & Steele, C. (1998). Social Stigma. In D. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Psychology (4th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 504-553). New York: McGraw Hill. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470561119

Crocker, J., Voelkl, K., Testa, M., & Major, B. (1991). Social stigma: The affective consequences of attributional ambiguity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(2), 218-228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.60.2.218

Eccleston, C. P., & Major, B. N. (2006). Attributions to Discrimination and Self-Esteem: The Role of Group Identification and Appraisals. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 9(2), 147-162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1368430206062074

Efron, B., & Tibshirani, R. J. (1993). An introduction to the bootstrap. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall.

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. (2010). European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey (EU-MIDIS) (Data in focus report 5: multiple discrimination). http://dx.doi.org/10.2811/95159.

Eurostat (2012). Europe in Figures. Eurostat yearbook 2012. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. http://dx.doi.org/10.2785/20539

Finch, B. K., Kolody, B., & Vega, W. A. (2000). Perceived Discrimination and Depression among Mexican-Origin Adults in California. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 41(3), 295-313. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2676322

González-Castro, J. L., & Ubillos, S. (2011). Determinants of psychological distress among migrants from Ecuador and Romania in a Spanish city. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 57(1), 30-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020764009347336

Guimond, S., & Tougas, F. (1996). Sentimientos de injusticia y acciones colectivas: La privación relativa [Feelings of injustice and collective action: Relative deprivation]. In R. Y. Bourhis & J. P. Leyens (Eds.), Estereotipos, discriminación y relaciones intergrupales (pp. 171-193). Madrid: McGrawHill.

Heider, F. (1958). The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. New York: Wiley.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118

International Organization for Migration. (2010). Migration and the economic crisis in the European Union: implications for policy. Brussels: International Organization for Migration. Retrieved from http://publications.iom.int/bookstore/free/Migration_and_the_Economic_Crisis.pdf

Iwamoto, D. K., & Liu, W. M. (2010). The impact of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values and race-related stress on Asian Americans’ well being. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(1), 79-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0017393

Joshanloo, M., Bobowik, M., & Basabe, N. (2016). Factor structure of mental well-being: Contributions of exploratory structural equation modeling. Personality and Individual Differences, 102, 107-110.

Kaiser, C. R., & Miller, C. T. (2001). Stop complaining! The social costs of making attributions to discrimination. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(2), 254-263.

Kaiser, C. R., Dyrenforth, P. S., & Hagiwara, N. (2006). Why are attributions to discrimination interpersonally costly? A test of system- and group-justifying motivations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(11), 1523-1536. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167206291475

Kelley, H. H. (1967). Attribution theory in social psychology. In D. Levine (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 15, (pp. 129-238). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press

Keyes, C. (1998). Social well-being. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61(2), 121-140. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2787065

Keyes, C. (2006). Subjective well-being in mental health and human development research worldwide: An introduction. Social Indicators Research, 77(1), 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-005-5550-3

Keyes, C. (2009). The Black-White Paradox in Health: Flourishing in the Face of Social Inequality and Discrimination. Journal of Personality, 77(6), 1677-1706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467- 6494.2009.00597.x

Larsen, R. J., & Prizmic, Z. (2008). Regulation of emotional well-being: Overcoming the hedonic treadmill. In M. Eid & R.J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 258-289). New York: Guilford.

Major, B., & O'Brien, L. T. (2005). The social psychology of stigma. Annual Review of Psychology, 56(1), 393-421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070137

Major, B., Quinton, W. J., & Schmader, T. (2003). Attributions to discrimination and self-esteem: Impact of group identification and situational ambiguity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39(3), 220-213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1031(02)00547-4

Mesch, G. S., Turjeman, H., & Fishman, G. (2008). Perceived discrimination and the well-being of immigrant adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(5), 592-604.

Meuleman, B., Davidov, E., & Billiet, J. (2009). Changing attitudes toward immigration in Europe, 2002-2007: A dynamic group conflict theory approach. Social Science Research, 38(2), 352-365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2008.09.006

Miller, C. T., & Kaiser, C. R. (2001). A theoretical perspective on coping with stigma. Journal of Social Issues, 57(1), 73-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00202

Mummendey, A., Kessler, T., Klink, A., & Mielke, R. (1999). Strategies to cope with negative social identity: Predictions by social identity theory and relative deprivation theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(2), 229-245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.76.2.229

Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2010). Mplus (version 6). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.

Pascoe, E., & Smart-Richman, L. (2009). Perceived Discrimination and Health: A Meta-Analytic Review. Psychological Bulletin, 135(4), 531-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0016059

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 141-166. http://dx.doi.org/0066- 4308/01/0201-0141

Ryff, C. D., Keyes, C. L. M., & Hughes, D. L. (2003). Status inequalities, perceived discrimination, and eudaimonic well-being: Do the challenges of minority life hone purpose and growth? Journal of Health & Social Behavior, 44(3), 275-291. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1519779

Schmitt, M. T., Branscombe, N. R., Postmes, T., & Garcia, A. (2014). The Consequences of Perceived Discrimination for Psychological Well-Being: A Meta-Analytic Review. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 921-948. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0035754

Schmitt, M.T., & Branscombe, N.R. (2002). The meaning and consequences of perceived discrimination in disadvantaged and privileged social groups. In W. Stroebe & M. Hewstone (Eds.), European review of social psychology (Vol. 12, pp. 167-199). Chichester: Wiley.

Seligman, M.E.P., Abramson, L.Y., Semmel, A. & Von Baeyer, C. (1979). Depressive attributional style. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 242-247.

Sevillano, V., Basabe, N., Bobowik, M. & Aierdi, X. (2014). Health-related quality of life and perceived discrimination among immigrants and natives in Spain. Ethnicity & Health, 19(2), 178-197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13557858.2013.797569

Skinner, E. A., Edge, K., Altman, J., & Sherwood, H. (2003). Searching for the structure of coping: A review and critique of category systems for classifying ways of coping. Psychological Bulletin, 129(2), 216-269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.2.216

Stroebe, K., Dovidio, J., Barreto, M., Ellemers, N., & John, M. S. (2011). Is the world a just place? Countering the negative consequences of pervasive discrimination by affirming the world as just. British Journal of Social Psychology, 50(3), 484-500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/014466610X523057

Swim, J. K. & Stangor, C. (1998). Prejudice: The target's perspective. New York: Academic Press.

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33-47). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Tucker, L., & Lewis, C. (1973). A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika, 38(1), 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02291170

Weiner, B. (1972). Attribution theory, achievement motivation, and the educational process. Review of educational research, 42(2), 203-215. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543042002203

Williams, D. R., & Mohammed, S. A. (2009). Discrimination and racial disparities in health: Evidence and needed research. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32(1), 20-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10865-008-9185-0

Williams, D. R., Neighbors, H. W., & Jackson, J. S. (2003). Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Health: Findings from Community Studies. American Journal of Public Health, 93(2), 200-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.93.2.200

Zautra, A.J., Guenther, R.T. & Chartier, G.M. (1985). Attributions for real and hypothetical events: Their relation to self-esteem and depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94, 530-540.

Zlobina, A., Basabe, N., Páez, D., & Furnham, A. (2006). Sociocultural adjustment of the immigrants. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30 (2), 195 – 211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.07.005
Cómo citar
Bobowik, M., Wlodarczyk, A., & Lay-Lisboa, S. (2018). Dark and Bright Side of Claiming Discrimination: Making Attributions to Prejudice and Social Wellbeing among Immigrants in Spain. Universitas Psychologica, 16(5), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.upsy16-5.dbsc
Artículos más leídos del mismo autor/a