Publicado May 18, 2017


Google Scholar
Search GoogleScholar

Diana Carolina Cárdenas Poveda

William Ruiz Gallo

Óscar Rodríguez-Angarita

Mayerli A. Prado-Rivera



El presente estudio evaluó si la escucha de música preferida por los participantes o la música relajante elegida por los investigadores previa al protocolo de estrés social modificado TSST (Trier Social Stress Test) afectaba el desempeño de las actividades realizadas durante el propio test, modulaba la respuesta de estrés que este induce, y en conjunto con el estresor, afectaba el desempeño en una tarea de atención en setenta y seis estudiantes universitarios asignados a uno de seis grupos: música relajante del investigador, música preferida por el participante y silencio, con o sin TSST. Los resultados mostraron que la escucha de ambos tipos de música provocó una pendiente ascendente menos pronunciada en los niveles de cortisol en saliva luego del TSST, comparada con la que presentaron quienes no escucharon música, mientras que el aumento en la ansiedad-estado evaluada con el IDARE (Inventario de Ansiedad Rasgo-Estado) fue semejante en todos los grupos. No se encontraron diferencias debidas a la música en el desempeño de las tareas evaluadas. Se discute que la modulación de la escucha de música, independiente de la preferencia musical, tiene un efecto sobre la respuesta fisiológica de estrés posiblemente por la inducción de reacciones emocionales que esta provoca


salivary cortisol, TSST, listening to relaxing music, music preference, STAIcortisol en saliva, TSST, escucha de música relajante, preferencia musical, IDARE

Abell, J. G., Shipley, M. J., Ferrie, J. E., Kivimäki, M., & Kumari, M. (2016). Recurrent short sleep, chronic insomnia symptoms and salivary cortisol: A 10-year follow-up in the Whitehall II study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 68, 91–99.

Allen, A. P., Kennedy, P. J., Cryan, J. F., Dinan, T. G., & Clarke, G. (2014). Biological and psychological markers of stress in humans: focus on the Trier Social Stress Test. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 38, 94–124.

Ashby, F. G., Isen, A. M., & Turken, A. U. (1999). A neuropsychological theory of positive affect and its influence on cognition. Psychological Review, 106

Brown, E. S., Beard, L., Frol, A. B., & Rush, A. J. (2006). Effect of two prednisone exposures on mood and declarative memory. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 86(1), 28–34.

Buchanan, T. W., David, D., Mowrer, S. M., Sollers, J. J., Thayer, J. F., Clemens, K., & Daniel, T. (2010). Medial prefrontal cortex damage affects physiological and psychological stress responses differently in men and women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35(1), 56–66.

Campbell, J., & Ehlert, U. (2012). Acute psychosocial stress: does the emotional stress response correspond with physiological responses? Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(8), 1111–1134.

Chanda, M. L., & Levitin, D. J. (2013). The neurochemistry of music. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17(4), 179–193.

Cohen, S., Hamrick, N., Rodríguez, M. S., Feldman, P. J., Rabin, B. S., & Manuck, S. B. (2000). The stability of and intercorrelations among cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, and psychological reactivity. Annals of Behavioral Medicine: A Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 22(3), 171–179.

Collomp, K., Baillot, A., Forget, H., Coquerel, A., Rieth, N., & Vibarel-Rebot, N. (2016). Altered diurnal pattern of steroid hormones in relation to various behaviors, external factors and pathologies: A review. Physiology & Behavior, 164(Pt A), 68–85.

de Quervain, D. J.-F., Henke, K., Aerni, A., Treyer, V., McGaugh, J. L., Berthold, T., … Hock, C. (2003). Glucocorticoid-induced impairment of declarative memory retrieval is associated with reduced blood flow in the medial temporal lobe. The European Journal of Neuroscience, 17(6), 1296–1302.

Duncko, R., Johnson, L., Merikangas, K., & Grillon, C. (2009). Working memory performance after acute exposure to the cold pressor stress in healthy volunteers. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 91(4), 377–381.

Ebneshahidi, A., & Mohseni, M. (2008). The effect of patient-selected music on early postoperative pain, anxiety, and hemodynamic profile in cesarean section surgery. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 14(7), 827–831.

Edel, R. (2003). Factores asociados al rendimiento académico. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación. Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura. En red. Retrieved from: . Sección: Investigación, 20 de Septiembre de 2003.

Guiso, L., Monte, F., Sapienza, P., & Zingales, L. (2008). DIVERSITY: Culture, Gender, and Math. Science, 320(5880), 1164–1165.

Hájek, T., Kopecek, M., Preiss, M., Alda, M., & Höschl, C. (2006). Prospective study of hippocampal volume and function in human subjects treated with corticosteroids. European Psychiatry: The Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists, 21(2), 123–128.

Hellhammer, J., Juliane, H., & Melanie, S. (2012). The physiological response to Trier Social Stress Test relates to subjective measures of stress during but not before or after the test. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(1), 119–124.

Het, S., Ramlow, G., & Wolf, O. T. (2005). A meta-analytic review of the effects of acute cortisol administration on human memory. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30(8), 771–784.

Hjortskov, N., Nis, H., Garde, A. H., Palle, Ø., & Hansen, Å. M. (2004). Evaluation of salivary cortisol as a biomarker of self-reported mental stress in field studies. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 20(2), 91–98.

Hoffman, R., & Al’Absi, M. (2004). The effect of acute stress on subsequent neuropsychological test performance (2003). Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: The Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists, 19(4), 497–506.

Isen, A. M. (2009). A Role for Neuropsychology in Understanding the Facilitating Influence of Positive Affect on Social Behavior and Cognitive Processes.

Isen, A. M., & Labroo, A. A. (2003). Some Ways in Which Positive Affect Facilitates Decision Making and Judgment. In Schneider, S. L. & Shanteau, J. (Eds.), Emerging Perspectives on Judgment and Decision Research (pp. 365–393). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Jaušovec, N., Jaušovec, K., & Gerlic, I. (2006). The influence of Mozart’s music on brain activity in the process of learning. Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology, 117(12), 2703–2714.

Jaušovec, N., Norbert, J., & Katarina, H. (2003). The “Mozart Effect”: An Electroencephalographic Analysis Employing the Methods of Induced Event-Related Desynchronization/Synchronization and Event-Related Coherence. Brain Topography, 16(2), 73–84.

Jiang, J., Jun, J., Linshu, Z., Daphne, R., & Cunmei, J. (2013). The effects of sedative and stimulative music on stress reduction depend on music preference. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 40(2), 201–205.

Johnson, A. C. (2015). Developmental pathways to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and disruptive behavior disorders: Investigating the impact of the stress response on executive functioning. Clinical Psychology Review, 36, 1–12.

Juslin, P. N. & Sloboda, J. A. (2013). Music and Cognitive Abilities. In Deutsch, D. The Psychology of Music (pp. 583-645).

Kalafatakis, K., Russell, G. M., Zarros, A., & Lightman, S. L. (2016). Temporal control of glucocorticoid neurodynamics and its relevance for brain homeostasis, neuropathology and glucocorticoid-based therapeutics. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 61, 12–25.

Khalfa, S., Bella, S. D., Roy, M., Peretz, I., & Lupien, S. J. (2003). Effects of relaxing music on salivary cortisol level after psychological stress. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 999, 374–376.

Kirschbaum, C., Pirke, K. M., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1993). The “Trier Social Stress Test”--a tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Neuropsychobiology, 28(1-2), 76–81.

Kirschbaum, C., Wolf, O. T., May, M., Wippich, W., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1996). Stress- and treatment-induced elevations of cortisol levels associated with impaired declarative memory in healthy adults. Life Sciences, 58(17), 1475–1483.

Knight, W. E., & Rickard, N. S. (2001). Relaxing music prevents stress-induced increases in subjective anxiety, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate in healthy males and females. Journal of Music Therapy, 38(4), 254–272.

Krumhansl, Carol L. (1997). An exploratory study of musical emotions and psychophysiology. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie expérimentale, 51(4), 336-353.

Kudielka, B.M., Schommer, N.C., Hellhammer, D.H., Kirschbaum, C. (2004). Acute HPA axis responses, heart rate, and mood changes to psychosocial stress (TSST) in humans at different times of day. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29, 983–992. http://doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2003.08.009

Kudielka B.M., Hellhammer D.H. & Kirschbaum C. (2007). Ten years of research with the Trier Social Stress Test – revisited. In: E. Harmon-Jones & P. Winkielman (Eds.), Social neuroscience: integrating biological and psychological explanations of social behavior, chapter 4, pp. 56-83. New York: The Guilford Press.

Lai, V., Viet, L., Chalermsiri, T., Tadao, M., Yoshiyuki, H., Mehrnoosh, M., … Masaharu, K. (2014). A normal intensity level of psycho-physiological stress can benefit working memory performance at high load. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 44(3), 362–367.

Lataster, J., Collip, D., Ceccarini, J., Haas, D., Booij, L., van Os, J., … Myin-Germeys, I. (2011). Psychosocial stress is associated with in vivo dopamine release in human ventromedial prefrontal cortex: a positron emission tomography study using [18F]fallypride. NeuroImage, 58(4), 1081–1089.

Leardi, S., Pietroletti, R., Angeloni, G., Necozione, S., Ranalletta, G., & Del Gusto, B. (2007). Randomized clinical trial examining the effect of music therapy in stress response to day surgery. The British Journal of Surgery, 94(8), 943–947.

León, F., Federico, L., & Consultores, L. &. B. (2013). Diferencias de sexo en matemática y comprensión lectora según poder femenino, urbanización y habilidad. Propósitos Y Representaciones, 1(1), 11–37.

le Roux, F. H., Bouic, P. J. D., & Bester, M. M. (2007). The Effect of Bach’s Magnificat on Emotions, Immune, and Endocrine Parameters During Physiotherapy Treatment of Patients with Infectious Lung Conditions. Journal of Music Therapy, 44(2), 156–168.

Lupien, S. J., Maheu, F., Tu, M., Fiocco, A., & Schramek, T. E. (2007). The effects of stress and stress hormones on human cognition: Implications for the field of brain and cognition. Brain and Cognition, 65(3), 209–237.

Mason, J. W. (1968). A review of psychoendocrine research on the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system. Psychosomatic Medicine, 30(5), Suppl:631–53. Retrieved from

Mazzoccoli, G., Gianluigi, M., Sothern, R. B., Valerio, P., Ada, P., Muscarella, L. A., … Francesco, G. (2011). Chronobiologic study of neuro-endocrine axis hormone sequence signalling in healthy men. Biomedicine & Aging Pathology, 1(3), 129–137.

McEwen, B. S. (2007). Physiology and Neurobiology of Stress and Adaptation: Central Role of the Brain. Physiological Reviews, 87(3), 873–904.

Mizoguchi, K., Yuzurihara, M., Ishige, A., Sasaki, H., Chui, D. H., & Tabira, T. (2000). Chronic stress induces impairment of spatial working memory because of prefrontal dopaminergic dysfunction. The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 20(4), 1568–1574.

Needham, B. L., Crosnoe, R., & Muller, C. (2004). Academic Failure in Secondary School: The Inter-Related Role of Health Problems and Educational Context. Social Problems, 51(4), 569–586.

Nilsson, U. (2009). The effect of music intervention in stress response to cardiac surgery in a randomized clinical trial. Heart Lung 38, 201-207.

Oei, N. Y. L., Everaerd, W. T. A. M., Elzinga, B. M., van Well, S., & Bermond, B. (2006). Psychosocial stress impairs working memory at high loads: an association with cortisol levels and memory retrieval. Stress, 9(3), 133–141.

Ortega, L. A., Prado-Rivera, M. A., Cárdenas-Poveda, D.C, McLinden, K. A., Glueck, A. C., Gutierrez, G.A, Lamprea, M., & Papini, M. R. (2013). Tests of the aversive summation hypothesis in rats: Effects of restraint stress on consummatory successive negative contrast and extinction in the Barnes maze. Learning and Motivation, 44(3), 159–173.

Peretz I. (2010). Towards a neurobiology of musical emotions. In Juslin P. N., Sloboda J. A. (Eds.). Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 99–126. DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230143.001.0001

Porcelli, A. J., Cruz, D., Wenberg, K., Patterson, M. D., Biswal, B. B., & Rypma, B. (2008). The effects of acute stress on human prefrontal working memory systems. Physiology & Behavior, 95(3), 282–289.

Rauscher, F. H., Shaw, G. L., & Ky, C. N. (1993). Music and spatial task performance. Nature, 365(6447), 611–611.

Rickard, N. S. (2004). Intense emotional responses to music: a test of the physiological arousal hypothesis. Psychology of Music, 32, 371-388.

Sandi, C. (2011). Glucocorticoids act on glutamatergic pathways to affect memory processes. Trends in Neurosciences, 34(4), 165–176.

Schellenberg, E. G., Glenn Schellenberg, E., & Weiss, M. W. (2013). Music and Cognitive Abilities. In The Psychology of Music (pp. 499–550).

Schellenberg, E. G., & Hallam, S. (2005). Music listening and cognitive abilities in 10- and 11-year-olds: the blur effect. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1060, 202–209.

Schlotz, W., Wolff, S., Robert, K., Irmgard, L., Sonja, E., Alexander, J., & Stefan, W. (2008). Covariance Between Psychological and Endocrine Responses to Pharmacological Challenge and Psychosocial Stress: A Question of Timing. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70(7), 787–796.

Schoofs, D., Pabst, S., Brand, M., & Wolf, O. T. (2013). Working memory is differentially affected by stress in men and women. Behavioural Brain Research, 241, 144–153.

Schoofs, D., & Wolf, O. T. (2011). Are salivary gonadal steroid concentrations influenced by acute psychosocial stress? A study using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). International Journal of Psychophysiology: Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology, 80(1), 36–43.

Schwabe, L., Lars, S., Marian, J., Benno, R., Wolf, O. T., & Oitzl, M. S. (2012). Stress effects on memory: An update and integration. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(7), 1740–1749.

Spielberger, Ch., & Díaz-Guerrero, R. (1975). IDARE Inventario de ansiedad: rasgo - estado. Manual Moderno.

Tarazona, O., Cerón, J., & Lamprea, M. (2013). Efecto de la Exposición a un Protocolo de Estrés Social Agudo sobre los Niveles Sistémicos de Cortisol y la Ejecución de una Tarea de Atención Sostenida y Dividida. Revista Colombiana de Psicología, 22(2), 347-360.

Test inmunológico in vitro para la determinación cuantitativa de cortisol en suero, plasma, orina y saliva humanos (Ref.11875116 122). (2009). Madrid: Laboratorio Cobas S.L.

Wolf, O. T., Schommer, N. C., Hellhammer, D. H., McEwen, B. S., & Kirschbaum, C. (2001). The relationship between stress induced cortisol levels and memory differs between men and women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26(7), 711–720.

Zwissler, B., Bastian, Z., Susanne, K., Harald, E., Manfred, S., & Johanna, K. (2011). Acute psycho-social stress does not disrupt item-method directed forgetting, emotional stimulus content does. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 95(3), 346–354.
Cómo citar
Cárdenas Poveda, D. C., Ruiz Gallo, W., Rodríguez-Angarita, Óscar, & Prado-Rivera, M. A. (2017). La escucha de música antes del TSST regula los niveles de cortisol en saliva independiente de la preferencia musical en estudiantes universitarios. Universitas Psychologica, 15(5).