Sergio Vila-Tojo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8065-9881

Elena Andrade https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0927-7992

Jose-Manuel Sabucedo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3002-851X

Sara González-García https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2553-0863

María Teresa Moreira https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9354-3298

Gumersindo Feijoo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6231-3887


Las intervenciones para promover conductas conservadoras del agua han seguido 3 tipos de estrategias: feedback, normas sociales y campañas de sensibilización. Esta revisión pretende evaluar las características metodológicas y valorar la eficacia alcanzada por estas estrategias. De una búsqueda sistemática de literatura, obtuvimos 31 artículos. En cada estrategia, analizamos 6 variables metodológicas esenciales, y calculamos el tamaño del efecto promedio. Encontramos ausencia destacada de grupo control y de medidas pre-post. El tamaño del efecto fue medio en las intervenciones de feedback y bajo en intervenciones basadas en normas sociales y campañas de sensibilización. Las intervenciones de feedback presentan mejores condiciones metodológicas. No obstante, se impone la necesidad de cuidar aspectos metodológicos esenciales, y de informar de estadísticos que permitan una estimación más fiable de la eficacia. Pese a ello, la tendencia de las tres estrategias es positiva, donde las intervenciones basadas en feedback son las de mayor efecto.



conservación del agua, feedback, normas sociales, campañas de sensibilización, características metodológicas

*Aitken, C. K., McMahon, T. A., Wearing, A. J., & Finlayson, B. L. (1994). Residential water use: Predicting and reducing consumption. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24(2), 136-158. https://www.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1994.tb00562.x

Arroyo, E., Bonanni, L., & Selker, T. (2005). Waterbot: Exploring feedback and persuasive techniques at the sink. Actas de la SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 631-639) Portland, OG: ACM. https://www.doi.org/10.1145/1054972.1055059

Beal, C., Stewart, R. A., Spinks, A., & Fielding, K. (2011). Using smart meters to identify social and technological impacts on residential water consumption. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 11(5), 527-533. https://www.doi.org/10.2166/ws.2011.088

Cialdini, R. B., Reno, R. R., & Kallgren, C. A. (1990). A focus theory of normative conduct: Recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public places. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(6), 1015-1026. https://www.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.58.6.1015

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences (2ª ed.). Nueva York, NY: Academic Press.

Corral-Verdugo, V., Frías-Armenta, M., Pérez-Urias, F., Orduña-Cabrera, V., & Espinoza-Gallego, N. (2002). Residential water consumption, motivation for conserving water and the continuing tragedy of the commons. Environmental Management, 30(4), 527-535. https://www.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-002-2599-5

*Davies, K., Doolan, C., van den Honert, R., & Shi, R. (2014). Water-saving impacts of Smart Meter technology: An empirical 5 years, whole-of-community study in Sydney, Australia. Water Resources Research, 50(9), 7348-7358. https://www.doi.org/10.1002/2014WR015812

Dean, A. J., Fielding, K. S., & Newton, F. J. (2016). Community knowledge about water: Who has better knowledge and is this associated with water-related behaviors and support for water-related policies? Plos One, 11(7), 1-18. https://www.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0159063

*Fang, Y. M., & Sun, M. S. (2016). Applying eco-visualisations of different interface formats to evoke sustainable behaviours towards household water saving. Behaviour & Information Technology, 35(9), 748-757. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2016.1189965

*Ferraro, P. J., & Price, M. K. (2013). Using non-pecuniary strategies to influence behaviour: Evidence from a large scale field experiment. Review of Economics and Statistics, 95(1), 64-73. https://www.doi.org/10.1162/REST_a_00344

Fielding, K. S., & Hornsey, M. J. (2016). A social identity analysis of climate change and environmental attitudes and behaviors: Insights and opportunities. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1-12. https://www.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00121

*Fielding, K. S., Spinks, A., Russell, S., McCrea, R., Stewart, R., & Gardner, J. (2013). An experimental test of voluntary strategies to promote urban water demand management. Journal of Environmental Management, 114, 343-351. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.10.027

*Fuss, N., Bornkessel, S., Mattern, T., & Stamminger, R. (2011). Are resource savings in manual dishwashing possible? Consumers applying Best Practice Tips. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 35(2), 194-200. https://www.doi.org/10.1111/j.1470-6431.2010.00972.x

*Goldstein, N. J., Cialdini, R. B., & Griskevicius, V. (2008). A room with a viewpoint: Using social norms to motivate environmental conservation in hotels. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(3), 472-482. https://www.doi.org/10.1086/586910

Hurlimann, A., Hemphill, E., McKay, J., & Geursen, G. (2008). Establishing components of community satisfaction with recycled water use through a structural equation model. Journal of Environmental Management, 88(4), 1221-1232. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2007.06.002

Inman, D., & Jeffrey, P. (2006). A review of residential demand-side management tool performance and influences on implementation effectiveness. Urban Water Journal, 3(3), 127-143. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/15730620600961288

*Jeong, S. H., Gulbinas, R., Jain, R. K., & Taylor, J. E. (2014). The impact of combined water and energy consumption eco-feedback on conservation. Energy and Buildings, 80, 114-119. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.05.013

Jorgensen, B., Graymore, M., & O’Toole, K. (2009). Household water use behavior: An integrated model. Journal of Environmental Management, 91(1), 227-236. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.08.009

*Kappel, K., & Grechenig, T. (2009). Show-me: Water consumption at a glance to promote water conservation in the shower. Actas del 4th International Conference on Persuasive Technology. Claremont, CA: ACM https://www.doi.org/10.1145/1541948.1541984

*Katz, D., Grinstein, A., Kronrod, A., & Nisan, U. (2016). Evaluating the effectiveness of a water conservation campaign: Combining experimental and field methods. Journal of Environmental Management, 180, 335-343. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.05.049

*Keramitsoglou, K. M., & Tsagarakis, K. P. (2011). Raising effective awareness for domestic water saving: Evidence from an environmental educational programme in Greece. Water Policy, 13(6), 828-844. https://www.doi.org/10.2166/wp.2011.103

*Kurz, T., Donaghue, N., & Walker, I. (2005). Utillizing a social-ecological framework to promote water and energy conservation: A field experiment. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35(6), 1281-1300. https://www.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2005.tb02171.x

*Lawrence, K., & McManus, K. (2008). Towards household sustainability in Sydney? Impacts of two sustainable lifestyle workshop programs on water consumption in existing homes. Greographical Research, 46(3), 314-332. https://www.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-5871.2008.00526.x

Liu, A., Giurco, D., & Mukheibir, P. (2015). Motivating metrics for household water-use feedback. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 103, 29-46. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.05.008

*Liu, A., Giurco, D., & Mukheibir, P. (2016). Urban water conservation through customised water and end-use information. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112(4), 3164-3175. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.10.002

Maas, A., Goemans, C., Manning, D., Kroll, S., Arabi, M., & Rodríguez-McGoffin, M. (2017). Evaluating the effect of conservation motivations on residential water demand. Journal of Environmental Management, 196, 394-401. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.03.008

*Mair, J., & Bergin-Seers, S. (2010). The effect of interventions on the environmental behavior of Australian motel guests. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(4), 255-268. https://www.doi.org/10.1057/thr.2010.9

*Middlestadt, S., Grieser, M., Hernández, O., Tubaishat, K., Sanchack, J., Southwell, B., & Schwartz, R. (2001). Turning minds on and faucets off: Water conservation education in Jordanian schools. The Journal of Environmental Education, 32(2), 37-45. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/00958960109599136

*Miller, L. L. (2010). Measuring the efficacy of an energy and environmental awareness campaign to effectively reduce water consumption (Disertación doctoral). State College, PA: Pennsylvania State University. Recuperado de https://etda.libraries.psu.edu/catalog/11337

*Morgan, M., & Chompreeda, K. (2015). The relative effect of message-based appeals to promote water conservation at a tourist resort in the gulf of Thailand. Environmental Communication, 9(1), 20-36. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/17524032.2014.917689

Naciones Unidas. (2016). Water and Jobs. París: Unesco. Recuperado de http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002439/243938e.pdf

Nguyen, K. A., Stewart, R. A., & Zhang, H. (2013). An intelligent pattern recognition model to automate the categorisation of residential water end-use events. Environmental Modelling & Software, 47, 108-127. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2013.05.002

Olmstead, S. M., & Stavins, R. N. (2009). Comparing price and non-price approaches to urban water conservation. Water Resources Research, 45(4), 1-10. https://www.doi.org/10.1029/2008WR007075

Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos. (2016). Water, growth and finance: Policy perspectives. Recuperado de https://www.oecd.org/environment/resources/Water-Growth-and-Finance-policy-perspectives.pdf

*Otaki, Y., Ueda, K., & Sakura, O. (2017). Effects of feedback about community water consumption on residential water conservation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 143, 719-730. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.12.051

Renwick, M. E., & Archibald, S. O. (1998). Demand side management policies for residential water use: Who bears the conservation burden? Land Economics, 74(3), 343-359. https://www.doi.org/10.2307/3147117

*Richetin, J., Perugini, M., Mondini, D., & Hurling, R. (2016). Conserving water while washing hands: the immediate and durable impacts of descriptive norms. Environment and Behavior, 48(2), 343-364. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/0013916514543683

Sarabia-Sánchez, F. J., Rodríguez-Sánchez, C., & Hyder, A. (2014). The role of personal involvement, credibility and efficacy of conduct in reported water conservation behaviour. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 38, 206-216. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2014.02.003

*Schultz, P. W., Khazian, A. M., & Zaleski, A. C. (2008). Using normative social influence to promote conservation among hotel guests. Social Influence, 3(1), 4-23. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/15534510701755614

*Schultz, P. W., Messina, A., Tronu, G., Limas, E. F., Gupta, R., & Estrada, M. (2016). Personalized normative feedback and the moderating role of personal norms: A field experiment to reduce residential water consumption. Environment and Behavior, 48(5), 686-710. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/0013916514553835

*Serna, V. F. (2014). Effects of a water conservation education program on water use in single-family homes in Dallas, Texas. (Disertación Doctoral). Denton, TX: Universidad del Norte de Texas. Recuperado de https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc699967/

*Seyranian, V., Sinatra, G. M., & Polikoff, M. S. (2015). Comparing communication strategies for reducing residential water consumption. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 41, 81-90. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2014.11.009

Skinner, B. F. (1974). About Behaviorism. Nueva York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.

*Staats, H., Harland, P., & Wilke, H. A. M. (2004). Effecting durable change: a team approach to improve environmental behavior in the household. Environment and Behaviour, 36(3), 341-367. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/0013916503260163

*Stewart, R. A., Willis, R. M., Panuwatwanich, K., & Sahin, O. (2013). Showering behavioural response to alarming visual display monitors: Longitudinal mixed method study. Behaviour & Information Technology, 32(7), 695-711. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2011.577195

*Survis, F. D. (2016). Beyond water restrictions: informing effective lawn watering behavior. (Disertación Doctoral). Boca Ratón, FL: Florida Atlantic University. Recuperado de https://fau.digital.flvc.org/islandora/object/fau%3A33718

Syme, G. J., Nancarrow, B. E., & Seligman, C. (2000). The evaluation of information campaigns to promote voluntary household water conservation. Evaluation Review, 24(6), 539-578. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/0193841X0002400601

*Tijs, M. S., Karremans, J. C., Veling, H., de Lange, M. A., van Meegeren, P., & Lion, R. (2017). Saving water to save the environment: contrasting the effectiveness of environmental and monetary appeals in a residential water saving intervention. Social Influence, 12(2-3), 69-79. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/15534510.2017.1333967

Trumbo, C. W., & O’Keefe, G. J. (2005). Intention to conserve water: Environmental values,
reasoned action, and information effects across time. Society and Natural Resources, 18(6), 573-585. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/08941920590948002

*Warner, L. A., Chaudhary, A. K., & Galindo-González, S. (2016). Extension participants and nonparticipants differ in water conservation normative beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. HortTechnology, 26(6), 852-861. https://www.doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH03484-16

*Watson, R. K., Murphy, M. H., Kilfoyle, F. E., & Moore, S. M. (1999). An opportunistic field experiment in community water conservation. Population and Environment, 20(6), 545-560. https://www.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023370100947

*Willis, R. M., Stewart, R. A., Panuwatwanich, K., Jones, S., & Kyriakides, A. (2010). Alarming visual display monitors affecting shower end use water and energy conservation in Australian residential households. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 54(12), 1117-1127. https://www.doi.org/ https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2010.03.004

Yazdanpanah, M., Hayati, D., Hochrainer-Stigler, S., & Zamani, G. H. (2014). Understanding farmers’ intention and behavior regarding water conservation in the Middle-East and North Africa: A case study in Iran. Journal of Environmental Management, 135, 63-72. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.01.016
Cómo citar
Vila-Tojo, S., Andrade, E., Sabucedo, J.-M., González-García, S., Moreira, M., & Feijoo, G. (2019). Revisión sobre las características metodológicas y la eficacia de intervenciones orientadas a reducir el consumo de agua. Universitas Psychologica, 18(5), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.upsy18-5.rscm
Artículos más leídos del mismo autor/a