Published May 12, 2016


Google Scholar
Search GoogleScholar

Diego Rivera

Melissa Obando

Daniel Fernando Rojas-Tapias

Ruth Bonilla-Buitrago

Helber Barbosa



The spray-drying technique was applied for the development of three solid formulations of Rhizobium. Sodium alginate and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) with concentrations of 0.5 % were used as polymers. Results showed that none of the solid formulations had negative effects in vitro on the growth-promoting capacities of Rhizobium sp. G58 (p < 0.05). PCA´s first three components explained 84.5 % of the total variance. This analysis concluded that the solid formulation had not negative effects on the biological nitrogen fixation activity in vitro or on the process of nodulation in greenhouse experiments. Symbiosis between Rhizobium and the plant was effective, which suggested that, under controlled conditions, the coating process with the polymers had allowed a controlled release of the bacteria and a proper transfer of Rhizobium sp. from the microparticles to the root of the plant.


entrapment, spray-drying, coating, formulation.

Arora NK, Khare E, Maheshwari DK. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria: Constraints in Bioformulation, Commercialization, and Future Strategies, Plant Growth and Health Promoting Bacteria, Microbiology Monographs 18:97-116, 2011.
doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-13612-2_5

Boza Y, Barbin D, Scamparini ARP. Effect of spray-drying on the quality of encapsulated cells of Beijerinckia sp, Process Biochemistry, 39(10):1275–1284, 2004.
doi: 10.1016/j.procbio.2003.06.002

Champagne CP, Fustier P. Microencapsulation for the improved delivery of bioactive compounds into foods, Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 18(2):184-190, 2007.
doi: 10.1016/j.copbio.2007.03.001

Docampo R, de Souza W, Miranda K, Rohloff P, Moreno SN. Acidocalcisomes—conserved from bacteria to man, Nature Reviews Microbiology, 3(3):251–261, 2005.
doi: 10.1038/nrmicro1097

Glickmann E, Dessaux Y. A critical examination of the specificity of the salkowski reagent for indolic compounds produced by phytopathogenic bacteria, Applied Environmental Microbiology, 61(2):793-796, 1995.

Hardy RWF, Holsten RD, Jackson EK, Burns RC. The Acetylene ethylene assay for N2 fixation: laboratory and field evaluation, Plant Physiology, 43(8):1185–1207, 1968.
doi: 10.1104/pp.43.8.1185

Hoagland DR, Arnon DI. The Water-culture method for growing plants without soil, California Agricultural Experimental Station, Circular C347 pp 34, 1950.

Krasaekoopt W, Bhandari B, Deeth H. The influence of coating materials on some properties of alginate beads and survivability of microencapsulated probiotic bacteria, International Dairy Journal, 14 (8): 737–743, 2004.
doi: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2004.01.004

Larisch BC, Poncelet D, Champagne CP. Microencapsulation of Lactococcus lactis subsp. Cremoris, Journal Microencapsulation, 11(2): 189–195, 1994.
doi: 10.3109/02652049409040450

Lee BJ, Ryu SG, Cui JH. Controlled release of dual drug-loaded hydroxypropyl methylcellulose matrix tablet using drug-containing polymeric coatings, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 188(1): 71-80, 1999.
doi: 10.1016/S0378-5173(99)00204-5

Lee KY, Heo TR. Survival of Bifidobacterium longum immobilized in calcium alginate beads in simulated gastric juices and bile salt solution, Applied Environmental Microbiology, 66(2): 869-873, 2000
doi: 10.1128/AEM.66.2.869-873.2000

Maciel GM, Chaves KS, Grosso CRF, Gigante ML. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 by spray-drying using sweet whey and skim milk as encapsulating materials, Journal of Dairy Science, 97(4):1991–1998, 2014.
doi: 10.3168/jds.2013-7463

Mary P, Moschetto N, Tailliez R. Production and survival during storage of spray-dried Bradyrhizobium japonicum cell concentrates, Journal Applied Microbiology, 74(3):340– 344, 1993.
doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.1993.tb03035.x

Ozer B, Uzun YS, Kirmaci HA. Effect of microencapsulation on viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-12 during Kasar cheese ripening, International Journal of Dairy Technology, 61(3): 237-244, 2008.
doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0307.2008.00408.x

Park JK, Chang HN. Microencapsulation of microbial cells, Biotechnology Advances, 18(4): 303–319, 2000.
doi: 10.1016/S0734-9750(00)00040-9

Puente ME, Holguin G, Glick BG, Bashan Y. Root-surface colonization of black mangrove seedlings by Azospirillum halopraeferens and Azospirillum brasilense in seawater. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 29(3):283-292, 1999.
doi: 10.1016/S0168-6496(99)00023-9

Rivera D, Obando M, Barbosa H, Rojas Tapias D, Bonilla Buitrago R. Evaluation of polymers for the rhizobial liquid formulation and their Influence in the Rhizobium-Cowpea Interaction, Universitas Scientiarum, 19(3): 265-275, 2014.
doi: 10.11144/Javeriana.SC19-3.eplr

Serafim LS, Lemos PC, Levantesi C, Tandoi V, Santos H, Reis MA. Methods for detection and visualization of intracellular polymers stored by polyphosphate-accumulating microorganisms, Journal of Microbiology Methods, 51(1):1-18, 2002.
doi: 10.1016/S0167-7012(02)00056-8

Vincent J. A manual for the practical study of root nodule bacteria. In International biological programme, vol 15. Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford, 1970.

Schoebitz M, López Maria D, Roldán A. Bioencapsulation of microbial inoculants for better soil–plant fertilization. A review, Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 33(4):751-765, 2013.
doi: 10.1007/s13593-013-0142-0

Smit E, Wolters AC, Lee H, Trevors JT, Van Elsas JD. Interaction between a genetically marked Pseudomonas fluorescens strain and bacteriophage øR2f in soil: Effects of nutrients, alginate encapsulation, and the wheat rhizosphere, Microbial Ecology, 31(2):125-140, 1996.
doi: 10.1007/BF00167859

To BCS, Etzel MR. Survival of Brevibacterium linens ATCC 9174 after spray drying, freeze drying, or freezing, Journal of Food Science, 62(1):167-170, 1997b.
doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1997.tb04392.x

Trivedi P, Pandey A. Plant growth promotion abilities and formulation of Bacillus megaterium strain B 388 (MTCC6521) isolated from a temperate Himalayan location Indian, Journal of Microbiology, 48(3):342-347, 2008.
doi: 10.1007/s12088-008-0042-1

Young CC, Rekha PD, Lai WA, Arun AB. Encapsulation of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria in Alginate Beads Enriched With Humic Acid, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 95(1):76- 83, 2006.
doi: 10.1002/bit.20957
How to Cite
Rivera, D., Obando, M., Rojas-Tapias, D. F., Bonilla-Buitrago, R., & Barbosa, H. (2016). Entrapment of Rhizobium sp. by fluidized bed technique using polymers as coating materials. Universitas Scientiarum, 21(2), 117–128.
Microbiología Aplicada / Applied Microbiology / Microbiologia aplicada

Most read articles by the same author(s)