Publicado Apr 17, 2018

Google Scholar
Search GoogleScholar

Mónica Pérez Marín



Este artículo analiza los encuadres mediáticos desde los cuales la National Geographic Magazine —NGM— (1903-1926) contribuyó a la construcción de la identidad de los colombianos a comienzos del siglo XX. El argumento central del artículo es que los encuadres mediáticos encontrados están soportados por las ideologías del Destino manifiesto y del positivismo.

A través de la estrategia retórica de la apropiación, los encuadres encontrados promueven dos valores asociados al Destino manifiesto: la virtud de las instituciones de Estados Unidos y la misión de transformar el mundo de acuerdo con los valores profesados por este país.

En relación con la ideología del positivismo, los encuadres mediáticos la reproducen a través de la estrategia retórica de la clasificación, ya que los reportajes observan la identidad de los colombianos a través del lente de la teoría científica del darwinismo.


critical discourse analysis, identity, Colombia, manifest destiny, pan-Americanismanálisis crítico del discurso, identidad, Colombia, Destino manifiesto, panamericanismoAnálise Crítica do Discurso, Identidade, Colômbia, Destino Manifesto, Pan-americanismo

Althusser, L. (2014). On the reproduction of capita- lism: Ideology and ideological state apparatuses. Londres: Verso.

Barker, C. (2004). The Sage Dictionary of Cultural Studies. Londres: Sage Publications.

Barrett, J. (1906). Latin America and Colombia. Natio- nal Geographic Magazine Dec. 1906: 692, National Geographic Virtual Library. Web. 3 Nov. 2013.

Beaudreau, S. (2002). The changing faces of Canada: Images of Canada in National Geographic. American Review of Canadian Studies, 4, 517-546.

Bhabha, H. (1990). Nation and narration. Londres: Routledge.

Bhabha, H. K. (2004). The location of culture. Nueva York: Routledge.

Boguski, T. (2010). Life cycle carbon footprint of the National Geographic Magazine. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 15(7), 635-643.

Bortree, D., Ahern, L., Dou, X. y Smith, A. (2012). Framing environmental advocacy: A study of 30 years of advertising in National Geographic Magazine. International Journal of Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Marketing, 17(2), 77-91. doi:10.1002/nvsm.437

Bottomore,T.B.(2002).TheFrankfurtSchooland its critics. Nueva York: Routledge.

Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Brown, R. H. (1986). Rhetoric and the science of history: The debate between evolutionism and empiricism as a conflict of metaphors. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 72(2), 148-161.

Bryan, C. D. B. (1987). The National Geographic Society: 100 years of adventure and discovery. Washington: National Geographic Society.

Cannadine, D. (2013). The undivided past: Huma- nity beyond our differences. Nueva York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Chapman, F. M. (1921). Over the Andes to Bogotá. National Geographic Magazine Oct. 1921: 353+. National Geographic Virtual Library. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.

Darling-Wolf, F. y Mendelson, A. L. (2008). Seeing themselves through the lens of the other: An analysis of the cross-cultural pro- duction and negotiation of national geogra- phic’s “The Samurai Way” story. Journalism & Communication Monographs, 10(3), 285-322.

Daly, M. (1978). Gyn/Ecology: The metaethics of radical feminism. Boston: Beacon Press.

Escobar, A. (2012). Encountering development: The making and unmaking of the Third World. Princeton University Press.

Fairclough, N. (1989). Language and power. Londres: Longman.

Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and social change. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.

Fairclough, N. (1995). Media Discourse. Nueva York: Hodder.

Fairclough, N. (2008). El análisis crítico del discurso y la mercantilización del discurso público: las universidades. Discurso y Sociedad, 2(1), 170-185.

Finkelman, P. (2000). Manifest Destiny. In, Ency- clopedia of the United States in the Nine- teenth Century. New York: Scribner’s Sons. Recuperado de login?url= destiny

Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed. Nueva York: Continuum.

Foucault, M. (1972). The archaeology of knowledge. Nueva York: Routledge.

Fowler, R., Hodge, B., Kress, G. y Trew, T. (1979). Language and control. Londres: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Giddens, A. (1984). The constitution of society: Out- line of the theory of structuration. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Gilbert, D. y Kahl, J.A. (1982). The American class structure: A new synthesis. Homewood: Dorsey. Giles, H., Coupland, N. y Coupland, J. (Eds.). (1991). The context of accommodation. Nueva York: Cambridge University Press.

Giles, H. y Ogay, T. (2006). Communication accommodation theory. En B. Whaley y W. Samter (Eds.), Explaining communication: Contemporary theories and exemplars (pp. 293-310). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Giles, H. (2008). Accommodating translational research. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 36, 121-127.

Gitlin, T. (1980). The whole world is watching: Mass media in the making and unmaking of the New Left / Todd Gitlin. University of California Press.

Gramsci, A. (1992). Prison notebooks. Nueva York: Columbia University Press.

Goffman, E. (1974). Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. Nueva York: Harper & Row.

Grosvenor, G. H. (1903). Notes on Panama and Colombia. National Geographic Magazine Dec. 1903: 458. National Geographic Virtual Library. Web. 3 Nov. 2013.

Guba, E. G. y Lincoln, Y. S. (2008). Paradigmatic controversies, contradictions, and emerging confluences. En N. K. Denzin y Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The landscape of qualitative research (3.a ed.) (pp. 255-286). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Gudykunst, W. B. (1995). Anxiety/uncertainty management (AUM) theory: Current sta- tus. En R. L. Wiseman (Ed.), Intercultural Communication Theory (pp. 8-58). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Gudykunst, W. B. (2004). Bridging differences: Effective intergroup communication (4.a. ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Gudykunst, W. B. (2005). An anxiety/uncertainty management (AUM) Theory Effective Com- munication: Making the mesh of the net finer. En W. B. Gudykunst (Ed.), Theorizing about intercultural communication (pp. 281-322). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Gumucio-Dragon A. y Tufte, T. (2008). Anto- logía de comunicación para el cambio social: Lecturas históricas y contemporáneas. New Jersey: Consorcio de Comunicación para el Cambio Social.

Hall. S. (1985). Signification, representation, ideology: Althusser and the post-structuralist debate. Critical Studies in Mass Communica- tion, 2(2), 91-114.

Hall, S. (1997). The work of representation. En S. Hall (Ed.), Representation: Cultural repre- sentations and signifying practices, (pp. 13-74). London: Sage.

Halliday, M. (1978). Language as social semiotic. London: Edward Arnold.

Halliday, M. (1985). An introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold.

Halliday, M. y Hasan, R. (1985). Language, context and text. Geelong: Deakin University Press.

Hardt, M. y Negri, A. (2000). Empire. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Heidegger, M. (1962). Being and time. New York: Harper.

Hodge, R. y Kress, G. (1993). Language as ideology. London: Routledge.

Hofstede, G. y Hofstede, G. J. (2004). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind (2.a ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Hyndman, D. (2002). Indigenous representation of the T’boli and the Tasaday lost tribe contro- versy in postcolonial Philippines: Interpreting the eroticised, effeminising gaze in National Geographic. Social Identities: Journal for The Study Of Race, Nation and Culture, 8(1), 45-66. doi:10.1080/13504630220132017

Kim, M. S. (1993). Culture-based conversational constraints in explaining cross-cultural strate- gic competence. En R. L. Wiseman y J. Koester (Eds.), Intercultural communication competence (pp. 132-150). Newbury Park: Sage.

Kim, M. S. (1994). Cross-cultural comparisons of the perceived importance of conversational constraints. Human Communication Research, 21, 128-151.

Kim, M. S. (1995). Toward a theory of conversa- tional constraints. En R. L. Wiseman (Ed.), Intercultural communication theory (pp. 148- 169). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Kim, M. S. (2004). Culture-based conversational constraints theory: Individual and culture- level analyses. En W. B. Gudykunst (Ed.), Theorizing about intercultural communication (pp. 93-117). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Kinder, D. y Sanders, L. M. (1990). Mimicking political debate with survey questions: The case of white opinion on affirmative action for blacks. Social Cognition, 8, 73-103.

Jansson, D. R. (2003). American national iden- tity and the progress of the New South in National Geographic Magazine. Geographical Review, 93(3), 350-369.

Laclau, E. y Mouffe, C. (2001). Hegemony and socialist strategy: Towards a radical democratic politics. New York: Verso.

Lakoff, G. y Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. University of Chicago Press.

Lutz, C. y Collins, J. (1993). Reading National geographic. University of Chicago Press.

Lyotard, J. (1984). The postmodern condition: A report on knowledge. University of Minnesota Press.

Martin-Barbero, J. (1993). Communication, culture and hegemony. From the media to the media- tions. London: Sage.

Martin-Barbero, J. (2002). Identities: Traditions and new communities. Media, Culture & Society, 24, 621-641.

Marx, K. & Engels, F. (2007). El manifiesto comunista de Marx y Engels. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Mignolo, W. (2000). Local histories/global designs. Coloniality, subaltern knowledges and border thinking. Princenton University Press.

Miller, T. (2001). What it is and what it isn’t: Introducing ...Cultural Studies. En Miller, T. (Ed.), A companion to cultural studies (pp. 1-19). Malden: Blackwell Publishing.

Moseley, W. (2005). Reflecting on National Geo- graphic Magazine and academic geography: The September 2005 Special Issue on Africa. African Geographical Review. Recuperado de 0/19376812.2005.9756188

Murdock, G. (1995). Across the great divide: Cultural analysis and the condition of democracy. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 12(1), 89-95.

Neuhaus, J. (1997). Colonizing the coffee table: National Geographic Magazine and erasure of difference in the representation of women. American Periodicals, 7,1-26.

Nygren, A. (2006). Representations of tropical forests and tropical forest-dwellers in travel accounts of National Geographic. Environ- mental Values, 15(4), 505-525.

Obregon, R., Tufte, T. y K. Wilkins (Eds.). (2013). The Handbook of Development Communication and Social Change. Boston: Wiley. Pauly, P. (1979). The world and all that is in it: The National Geographic Society, 1888-1918. American Quarterly, 31, 517-32.

Palacios, M. (1980). Coffee in Colombia. 1850-1970. Cambridge University Press.

Pan, Z. y Kosicki, G. M. (1993). Framing Analysis: An approach to News Discourses. Political Communication, 10(1), 55-75.

Pérez-Marín, M. (2016). Critical Discourse Analysis of Colombian identities and humanature in National Geographic Magazine (1903-1952) (Tesis doctoral). University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. Recuperado de http://dspace.

Perivolaris, J. D. (2007). ‘Porto Rico’: The view from National Geographic, 1899-1924. Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, 84(2), 196-211. doi:10.3828/bhs.84.2.6

Popenoe, W. (1926). Round about Bogotá: A hunt for new fruits and plants among the mountain forests of Colombia’s unique capital. Natio- nal Geographic Magazine Feb. 1926: [127]+. National Geographic Virtual Library. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.

Pratt, M. (1992). Imperial eyes: Travel writing and transculturation. New York: Routledge.

Rogers, E. M. (1962). Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press of Glencoe.

Rojas, C. (2002). Civilization and violence: Regimes of representation in nineteenth-century Colom- bia. University of Minnesota Press.

Rothengberg, T. (2007). Presenting America’s world: Strategies of innocence in National Geographic Magazine, 1888-1945. Hampshire: Ashgate.

Safford, F. (1976). The ideal of the practical: Colombian’s struggle to form a technical elite. University of Texas Press.

Said, E. 1978 [2003]. Orientalism. Nueva York: Random House.

Said, E. (1998). The myth of the clash of civilizations: Professor Edward Said in lecture Northampton: Media Education Foundation.

Schlesinger, S. C. y Kinzer, S. (1982). Bitter fruit: The untold story of the American coup in Guatemala (1.a ed.). Garden City: Doubleday.

Schwartz-Du Pre, R. L. (2010). Portraying the political: National Geographic’s 1985 Afghan girl and a US alibi for aid. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 27(4), 336-356.

Spurr, D. (1993). The rhetoric of empire: Colonial discourse in journalism, travel writing, and imperial administration. Durham: Duke University Press.

Tatel, Jr., C. P. (2011). Non-Western peoples as Filipinos: mediating notions of “otherness” in photographs from the National Geographic Magazine in the early 20th Century. Asian Anthropology, 10, 61-79.

America ́s Library. (s.f.). National Geographic Pres- ident Gilbert H. Grosvenor Was Born October 28, 1875. Recuperado de http://www. /recon /jb_recon_nat- geo_2.html

Thompson, J. B. (1995). The media and modernity: A social theory of the media. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Ting-Toomey, S. (1988). Intercultural conflicts: A face-negotation theory. En Y. Y. Kim y W. B. Gudykunst (Eds.), Theories in intercultural com- munication (pp. 213-235). Newbury Park: Sage.

Ting-Toomey, S. (1998). Facework competence in intercultural conflict: An updated face- negotation theory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 22, 187-225.

Ting-Toomey, S. (2004). Translating conflict face-negotiation theory into practice. En D. Landis, J. Bennett y M. Bennett (Eds.), Handbook of Intercultural training (3.a ed.) (pp. 217-248). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Ting-Toomey, S. (2005). The matrix of face: An updated face-negotiation theory. En W. B. Gudykunst (Ed.), Theorizing about intercul- tural communication (pp. 71-92). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Todd, A. (2010). Anthropocentric distance in National Geographic’s Environmental aesthetic. Environmental Communication, 4(2), 206-224. doi:10.1080/17524030903522371

Touraine, A. (1988). The return of the actor. Uni- versity of Minnesota Press.

Tuason, J. A. (1999). The ideology of empire in National Geographic Magazine’s Coverage of the Philippines, 1898-1908. Geographical Review, 89(1), 34.

Urías Horcasitas, B. (2000). Indígena y criminal: interpretaciones del derecho y la antropología en México, 1871-1921. México: Universidad Iberoamericana.

Van Dijk, T. (1997). Discourse as interaction in society. En. T. van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse as social interaction (pp. 1-37). London: Sage.

Vattimo, G. (1997). Beyond interpretation: The meaning of hermeneutics for philosophy. Cali- fornia: Stanford University Press.

Wilkins, K., Tufte, T. y Obregon, R. (2014). The Handbook of development communication and social change. Hoboken: Wiley.

Wodak, R. y Meyer, M. (2001). Methods of critical discourse analysis. London: Sage.

Wodak, R, de Cillia, R., Reisigl, M. y Liebhart, K. (2009). The discursive construction of national identity (2.a ed.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Cómo citar
Pérez Marín, M. (2018). Análisis crítico del discurso de la identidad de los colombianos en National Geographic Magazine (1903-1926). Signo Y Pensamiento, 36(71), 134–152. Recuperado a partir de