Caracterización de alteraciones craneofaciales en población con necesidades especiales: autismo y retardo mental. Revisión sistemática de la literatura / Craniofacial Abnormalities in Special-Needs Population. Systematic Review of Literature

Carol Renata Erazo Cerón, Gloria Ángela Carrillo Estrada, Juliana Velosa Porras

Abstract


Antecedentes: en los pacientes con discapacidad física y mental se han encontrado anomalías orales y dentales que pueden llevar a un mal funcionamiento del complejo estomatognático. Ello genera disfunciones en el habla, la masticación, la deglución y la respiración. La identificación de las características craneofaciales de estos pacientes permitirá orientar y efectuar una intervención temprana de cualquier problema dental o esquelético a fin de lograr una oclusión normal y una mejoría en las funciones masticatorias, el desarrollo orofacial y el bienestar psicosocial del paciente. Propósito: identificar mediante una revisión sistemática de la literatura las alteraciones craneofaciales de pacientes con necesidades especiales (retardo mental y autismo) que permitan orientar su proceso diagnóstico. Métodos: se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura mediante la búsqueda en las bases de datos electrónicas: Medline, Cochrane-BVS, EBSCOHost, LiLACS, ScienceDirect, Embase y Ovid. Se utilizaron los descriptores: “trastorno autista” y “discapacidad intelectual” (autistic disorder AND intellectual disability), en combinación con “anormalidades craneofaciales”, “maloclusión” y “hábitos orales” (craniofacial abnormalities; malocclusion AND oral habits). Resultados: la evidencia disponible sobre características craneofaciales propias de pacientes con retardo mental y autismo fue limitada. Ello no permitió realizar un análisis y comparaciones estadísticas, hecho que impide generalizar los resultados. Conclusiones: no se encontró evidencia disponible sobre características craneofaciales en la población con retardo mental y autismo. Las anomalías dentofaciales más frecuentemente reportadas en pacientes con discapacidad mental y autismo fueron maloclusión y bruxismo, sin distinción de edad o sexo. 

 

Background: Oral and/or dental abnormalities have been found in patients with physical and/or mental disabilities, which may lead to malfunctions of the stomatognathic system, including speech, occlusion, and breathing dysfunctions. The identification of craniofacial issues among these patients will guide early dental and skeletal interventions, in order to achieve a normal occlusion, improved masticatory function, orofacial development, and psychosocial well-being of the patient. Purpose: To identify craniofacial abnormalities of special-needs patients (with intellectual disabilities and autism), through a systematic review of the literature, to guide the diagnostic process. Methods: The literature review was performed by searching the electronic databases: Medline, Cochrane-BVS, EBSCOHost, LiLACS, ScienceDirect, Embase, and Ovid, with the following descriptors: “autistic disorder” AND “intellectual disability,” in combination with “craniofacial abnormalities,” “malocclusion,” AND “oral habits.” Results: Evidence on craniofacial characteristics typical of patients with intellectual disability and autism was limited. Therefore, it was not possible to perform analysis and statistical comparisons and to generalize the results. Conclusion: There was not available evidence on craniofacial characteristics in people with intellectual disability and autism. The most frequently reported dentofacial abnormalities among these patients were malocclusion and bruxism, regardless of age or gender.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.uo33-71.cacp

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