Relación entre la presencia de enfermedad periodontal y el infarto agudo al miocardio por medio de la proteína C reactiva ultrasensible. Primera parte / Relationship between Presence of Periodontal Disease and Acute Myocardial Infarction...

Laura Rocío Sarmiento Bejarano, Juliana Velosa Porras, David Arango Pérez, Mauricio Villegas Vélez, Catalina Latorre Uriza, Francina Escobar Arregocés

Abstract


RESUMEN. Antecedentes: Es necesario evaluar la conexión entre enfermedad periodontal (EP) y el infarto agudo al miocardio (IAM), por medio de los niveles de proteína C reactiva ultrasensible, para establecer sus mecanismos de asociación. Objetivo: Analizar la posible correlación entre EP y IAM al usarse como parámetro de medición el incremento en los niveles de proteína C reactiva ultrasensible (PCR US) en una población colombiana. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles. La muestra estuvo conformada por 82 pacientes (41 para el grupo caso y 41 para el grupo control) a los cuales se les realizaron exámenes de laboratorio como perfil lipídico, glicemia y PCR US, así como sondaje periodontal con sonda Florida®, previa calibración del equipo. Los criterios de inclusión fueron pacientes con IAM en las últimas 72 horas (de acuerdo con los parámetros de la ESC/ACC, del 2001) para el grupo caso, pacientes sin IAM (grupo control), y tener un mínimo de 10 dientes en boca. Resultados: Todas las variables evaluadas tendieron a comportarse como factores de riesgo al elevarse los valores de PCR US (p<0,05). Por ende, los pacientes que presentan esta elevación tienen mayor riesgo de presentar IAM. Conclusión: La PCR US se eleva ante procesos infecciosos e inflamatorios. Se encuentra una asociación ente la EP, PCR US y el IAM.

ABSTRACT. Background: It is necessary to evaluate the relation between periodontal disease (PD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) through the levels of highly sensitive C-reactive protein, in order to establish the mechanisms of such association. Objective: To determine the possible correlation between PD and AMI, taking as a parameter increasing levels of highly sensitive C-reactive protein (HsCRP) in a Colombian population. Methods: A case-control study was conducted. The sample consisted of 82 patients (41 in the case group and 41 in the control group). Data came from calibrated laboratory tests (lipid profile, blood glucose, and HsCRP) and periodontal probing. Inclusion criteria were patients with AMI in the last 72 hours (according to ESC/ACC parameters, 2001) for the case group and patients without AMI (control group), having at least 10 teeth in mouth. Results: All variables analyzed tended to behave as risk factors by raising HsCRP levels (p<0.05). Therefore, patients with higher HsCRP have an increased risk of AMI. Conclusion: HsCRP levels increase in infectious and inflammatory processes, which is associated with PD, HsCRP, and AMI.


Keywords


enfermedad periodontal; estudios de casos y controles; infarto agudo al miocardio; medicina oral; periodoncia; proteína C reactiva ultrasensible

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.uo34-73.rpep

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