Published Dec 6, 2019


Google Scholar
Search GoogleScholar

Carlos Echeverri-Londoño, PhD

Jairo Ortiz-Pabón, MSc



Objective: This article proposes a prediction model applicable to the propagation of noise generated by fixed sources as the result of the analysis of the phenomena related to the generation and propagation of sound levels and the subsequent correlation between the estimated levels and the data recorded in the field. Materials and methods: An experimental program was designed that included the measurement of sound pressure levels with a sound level meter in free field conditions for different weather conditions and distances from the noise emission source for comparison with the levels estimated by ISO 9613 Part 2. A statistical analysis of the data recorded in the field was performed to observe their dependence on the meteorological variables recorded during the measurements. Results and discussion: The standard error for the proposed prediction method is 11.4 dB(A), and the absolute average error is 9.1 dB(A). The correlation coefficient of the proposed model is 0.87. A statistically significant relationship exists between the variables at the 95 % confidence level. Conclusion: A propagation model that presented a better fit than the method of ISO 9613 Part 2 and a higher correlation coefficient was obtained.


Noise, ISO 9613 Part 2, Noise propagationRuido, Norma ISO 9613 Parte 2, Propagación del ruido

[1] P. Economou and P. Charalampous, “A comparison of ISO 9613-2 and advanced calculation methods using olive tree lab-terrain, an outdoor sound propagation software application: Predictions versus experimental results,” Proc. Inst. Acoustics, vol. 34, no. 1, 2012. Available:
[2] M. Wondollek, “Sound from wind turbines in forest areas,” Uppsala Univ., Uppsala, Sweden, Tech. Rep., 2009.
[3] M. Bérengier et al., “Outdoor sound propagation: A short review on analytical and numerical approaches,” Acta Acust. United Ac., vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 980–991. [Online]. Available:
[4] K. Attenborough, “Developments in modelling and measuring ground impedance,” in 17th Int. Congr. Acoustics, 2002, pp. 236–237.
[5] ISO 9613-2:1996. Acoustics: Attenuation of sound during propagation outdoors. Part 2: General method of calculation, 1996.
[6] National Physical Laboratory, Guide to Predictive Modelling for Environmental Noise Assessment. London: National Physical Laboratory, 2007, pp. 1–30.
[7] G. van den Berg, “The sound of high winds: The effect of atmospheric stability on wind turbine sound and microphone noise,” Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands, 2006.
[8] J. Cummings, “The variability factor in wind turbine noise,” in 5th Int. Conf. Wind Turbine Noise, Denver, 2013, pp. 1–17.
[9] ISO 1996-1:2003. Acoustics: Description, measurement and assessment of environmental noise. Part 1: Basic quantities and assessment procedures, 2003.
[10] ISO 3744:2010. Acoustics: Determination of sound power levels and sound energy levels of noise sources using sound pressure. Engineering methods for an essentially free field over a reflecting plane, 2010.
[11] L. Conceição, “Wind turbine noise prediction,” M.S. thesis, Eng. Aeroesp., Ins. Sup. Téc., Univ. Téc. Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal, 2008.
[12] P. Moriarty and P. Migliore, “Semi-empirical aeroacoustic noise prediction code for wind turbines,” Nat. Ren. Energy Lab., Dec. 2003. [Online]. Available:
[13] W. Zhu, “Modelling of noise from wind turbines,” M.S. thesis, Wind Energy, Tech. Univ. Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark, 2004.
[14] S. Hoogzaad, “Measuring and calculating turbine noise immission in the Netherlands,” in IEA Wind expert meeting sound propag. mod., Stockholm, 2009, pp. 7–16. Available:
[15] S. Oerlemans et al., “Location and quantification of noise sources on a wind turbine,” J. Sound Vibration, vol. 299, no. 4-5, pp. 869–883, Feb. 2007. doi: 10.1016/j.jsv.2006.07.032
[16] K. Attenborough, “A review of ground impedance models for propagation modelling,” in Forum Acusticum Sevilla, 2002, pp. 1–6.
[17] J. Prospathopoulos and S. Voutsinas, “Application of a ray theory model to the prediction of noise emission from isolated wind turbines and wind parks,” Wind Energy, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 103–119, Mar. 2007. doi: 10.1002/we.211
[18] P. Fuglsang and H. Aagaard, “Implementation and verification of an aeroacoustic noise prediction model for wind turbines,” Risø Nat. Lab.Mar.1996.[Online].Available:
[19] H. Kruse, “In-situ measurement of ground impedances,” Ph.D. dissertation, Fakultät Mathematik Naturwissenschaften Carl Ossietzky, Univ. Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany, 2008.
[20] J. S. Lamancusa, Noise Control. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University, 2000.
[21] F. Molina, O. Rengifo, and F. Vélez, “Modelo de dispersión gaussiano de contaminantes atmosféricos,” Rev. AINSA, vol. 13, no. 1, pp 33–47, En. 1993.
[22] C. A. Echeverri et al., “Simulación de ruido de tránsito automotor como herramienta para el rediseño de rutas de transporte público colectivo en el municipio de Medellín,” Rev. Ing. Univ. de Medellín, vol. 10, no. 18, pp. 19–29, Jun. 2011. Available:
How to Cite
Echeverri-Londoño, C., & Ortiz-Pabón, J. (2019). Model for the prediction of noise generated by fixed sources. Ingenieria Y Universidad, 23(2).
Civil and environmental engineering