Publicado Jul 6, 2018


Google Scholar
Search GoogleScholar

Juan Diego García-Castro

Rolando Perez Sanchez



En el marco de la teoría del cultivo, la presente investigación estudia la asociación entre el consumo general de televisión, noticias televisivas y el miedo al crimen. El análisis  considera el transporte narrativo y la justificación del sistema como variables predictoras psicológicas; además, el sexo, el nivel de delincuencia en el área de residencia y la clase
social como covariables sociales. Los participantes fueron 516 jóvenes costarricenses (M = 20.5 años, DE = 4.7). Se realizó un análisis de regresión jerárquica (stepwise). Los resultados indican que las personas que experimentaron más transporte narrativo, menos justificación del sistema, las mujeres y la clase social baja tienen mayores niveles de miedo al crimen. Se discuten los resultados a partir de la necesidad de ampliar la
hipótesis de cultivo del miedo al crimen.


miedo al crimen, cultivo, transporte narrativo, justificación del sistema, clase socialfear of crime, cultivation, narrative transportation, system justification, social class

Abdullah, A., Hedayati, M., Bahauddin, A., & Javad, M. (2012). The relationship between territorial functioning and victimization: A comparative study of high and low crime rate estates. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 50, 899-908.

Appel, M. (2008). Fictional narratives cultivate just-world belief. Journal of Communication, 58, 62-83.

Bilandzic, H., & Buselle, R. (2008). Transportation and transportability in the cultivation of genre-consistent attitudes and estimates. Journal of Communication, 58, 508-509. http:/

Bilandzic, H., & Buselle, R. (2011). Enjoyment of films as a function of narrative
experience, perceived realism and transportability. Communications, 36, 29-50.

Brewer, P., & Ley, B. (2010). Media use and public perceptions of DNA evidence. Science Communication, 32(1), 93-117.

Calderón, R. (2007). Delito y cambio social en Costa Rica: resultados de investigación (Working Paper Series N°12). Miami: Center for Latin American Studies, University of Miami. Retrieved from iI93YA/

Collins, D. (2003). Pretesting survey instruments: An overview of cognitive methods. Quality of Life Research, 12(3), 229-238. Retrieved from stable/4038871

Diefenbach, D., & West, M. (2007). Television and attitudes toward mental health issues: Cultivation analysis and the third-person effect. Journal of Community Psychology, 35(2), 181-195.

Doyle, A. (2006). How no to think about crime in the media. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 48(6), 867-885.

Edson, J. (2004). Imagine yourself in the product: Mental simulation, narrative transportation, and persuasion. Journal of Advertising, 33(2), 37-48. Retrieved from

Eschholz, S., Chiricos, T., & Gertz, M. (2003). Television and fear of crime: Program types, audience traits, and the mediating effect of perceived neighborhood racial composition. Social Problems, 50(3), 395-415.

Ferraro, K., & LaGrange, R. (1987). The measurement of fear of crime. Sociological Inquiry, 57, 70-101.

Fiske, S. (2004). Social beings: A core motives approach to social psychology.
New York: Wiley.

Fiske, S., & Taylor, S. (2013). Social cognition: From brain to culture. London: Sage.

Fonseca, K., & Sandoval, C. (2005). Medios de comunicación e (in)seguridad ciudadana en Costa Rica. San José, CR: Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo.

Frey, B., Benesch, C., & Stutzer, A. (2007). Does watching TV make us happy? Journal of Economic Psychology, 28, 283-313.

García-Castro, J. D. (2010). Ideología de la desigualdad: Análisis de la investigación empírica en psicología social. Revista Electrónica de Psicología Política, 8(24), 67-87. Recuperado de

García-Castro, J. D. (2012). Percepción de criminalidad en Costa Rica: clases sociales, televisión e ideología (Serie Documentos de Trabajo). Becas de Investigación. Buenos Aires: CLACSO. Retrieved from

Green, M., & Brock, T. (2000). The role of transportation in the persuasiveness of public narratives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(5), 701-721. Retrieved from

Green, M., & Clark, J. (2012). Transportation into narrative worlds: Implications for entertainment media influences on tobacco use. Addiction, 108, 477-484.

Gross, K., & Aday, S. (2003). The scary world in your living room and neighborhood crime rates, and personal experience to test agenda setting and cultivation. Journal of Communication, 53, 411-426.

Holbert, R., Shah, D., & Kwak, N. (2004). Fear, authority, and justice: Crime-related TV viewing and endorsements of capital punishment and gun ownership. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 18(2), 343-363.

Huhn, S. (2009, September). The culture of fear and control in Costa Rica (II): The talk of crime and social changes (Working Paper N° 108). Leibniz, DE: German Institute of Global and Area Studies. Retrieved from

Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos. (2011, May). X Censo Nacional de Población y VI de Vivienda. Resultados Generales. San José, CR: Author. Retrieved from

Jost, J., Banaji, M., & Nosek, B. (2004). A decade of system justification theory: Accumulated evidence of conscious and unconscious bolstering of the status quo. Political Psychology, 25, 881-919. Retrieved from,%20Banaji,%20&%20Nosek%20(2004)%20A%20Decade%20of%20System%20Justificati.pdf

Jost, J., Federico, C., & Napier, J. (2009). Political ideology: Its structure, functions, and elective affinities. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 307-337.

Jost, J., & Kay, A. C. (2005). Exposure to benevolent sexism and complementary gender stereotypes: Consequences for specific and diffuse forms of system justification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(3), 498-509.

Jost, J., & Thompson, E. (2000). Group-based dominance and opposition to equality as
independent predictors of self-esteem, ethnocentrism, and social policy attitudes among African American and European Americans. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 36, 209-232.

Karakus, O., McGarrel, E., & Basibuyuk, O. (2010). Fear of crime among citizens of Turkey. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38, 174-184.

Kay, A., Gaucher, D., Napier, J., Callan, M., & Laurin, K. (2008). God and government: Testing a compensatory control mechanism for the support of external systems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 18-35.

Kohm, S., Waid-Lindberg, C., Weinrath, M., O’Connor, T., & Dobbs, R. (2012). The impact of media on fear of crime among university students: A cross national comparison. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 54(1), 67-100.

Lee, M., Bichard, S., Irey, M., Walth, H., & Carlson, A. (2009). Television viewing and ethnic stereotypes: Do college students from stereotypical perceptions of ethnic groups as a result of heavy television consumption? Howard Journal of Communications, 20(1), 95-110.

McKee, K. J., & Milner, C. (2000). Health, fear of crime and psychosocial functioning in older people. Journal of Health Psychology, 5, 473-486.

Morgan, M., & Shanahan, J. (2010). The state of cultivation. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 54(2), 337-355.

Napier, J., Thorisdottir, H., & Jost, J. (2010). The joy of sexism? A multinational investigation of hostile and benevolent justifications for gender inequality and their relations to subjective well-being. Sex Roles, 62, 405-419.

Niederdeppe, J., Franklin, E., Goldstein, K., & Pribble, J. (2010). Does local television news coverage cultivate fatalistic belief about cancer prevention? Journal of Communication, 60, 230-253.

Pantazis, C. (2000). Fear of crime, vulnerability, and poverty. British Journal of Criminology, 40, 414-436.

Pennebaker, J., & Stone, L. (2004). Translating traumatic experiences into language: Implications for child abuse and long-term health. In L. J. Koening, L. Doll, A. O’Leary & W. Pequegnat (Eds.), From child sexual abuse to adult sexual risk: Trauma, revictimization, and intervention (pp. 201-216). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Pérez, R., & Torres, D. (2012). Recepción de series televisivas y formación de esquemas cognoscitivos asociados a sus personajes: un estudio con niños y adolescentes costarricenses. Universitas Psychologica, 11(4), 1291-1302. Retrieved from

Petty, R. E., Priester, J. R., & Briñol, P. (2002). Mass media attitude change: Implications of the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. In J. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 155-198). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Presson, P., & Benassi, V. (1996). Illusion of control: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 11(3), 493-510. Retrieved from

Rader, N., Cossman, J., & Porter, J. (2012). Fear of crime and vulnerability: Using a national simple of Americans to examine two competing paradigms. Journal of Criminal Justice, 40, 134-141.

Rankin, L., Jost, J., & Wakslak, C. (2009). System justification and the meaning of life: Are the existential benefits of ideology distributed unequally across racial groups. Social Justice Research, 22, 312-333.

Riddle, K. (2010). Always on my mind: Exploring how frequent, recent, and vivid television portrayals are used in the formation of social reality judgments. Media Psychology, 13, 155-179.

Romer, D., Jamieson, K., & Aday, S. (2003). Television news and the cultivation of fear of crime. Journal of Communication, 53, 88-104.

Rountree, P., & Land, K. (1996). Perceived risk versus fear of crime: Empirical evidence of conceptually distinct reactions in survey data. Social Forces, 74, 1353-1376.

Ruiz, J. (2007). Cultura ciudadana, miedo al crimen y victimización: un análisis de sus interrelaciones desde la perspectiva del tejido social. Acta Colombiana de Psicología, 10(1), 75-64. Retrieved from

Ruiz, J., & Turcios, L. (2009). Percepción de seguridad, victimización y cultura ciudadana: sus relaciones en cinco contextos iberoamericanos. Pensamiento Psicológico, 6(13), 193-202. Retrieved from

Salmi, V., Smolej, M., & Kivivuori, J. (2007). Crime victimization, exposure to crime news and social trust among adolescents. Young, 15(3), 255-272.

Scarborough, B., Like-Haislip, T., Novak, K., Lucas, W., & Alarid, F. (2010). Assessing the relationship between individual’s characteristics, neighborhood context and fear of crime. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38, 819-226.

Schafer, J., Huebner, B., & Bynum, T. (2006). Fear of crime and criminal victimization: Gender-based contrasts. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34, 285-301.

Shanahan, J., & Morgan, M. (2003). Television and its viewers: Cultivation theory and research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Shrum, L. (1996). Psychological processes underlying cultivation effects: Further test of construct accessibility. Human Communication Research, 22(4), 482-509.

Smith-Castro, V., & Molina, M. (2011). Cuaderno metodológico 5. La entrevista cognitiva: guía para su aplicación en la evaluación y mejoramiento de instrumentos de papel y lápiz. San José, CR: Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas.

Snyder, J., Fessler, D., Tiokhin, L., Frederick, D., Woo, S., & Navarrete, C. (2011). Trade-off in a dangerous world: Women’s fear of crime predicts preferences for aggressive and formidable mates. Evolution and Human Behavior, 32(2), 127-137.

Stephens, N., Markus, H., & Townsend, S. (2007). Choice as an act of meaning: The case of social class. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(5), 814-830.

United Nations Development Program. (UNDP). (2005). Overcoming Fear: Citizen (in)security and human development in Costa Rica (National Human Development Report 2005). San José, CR: Author. Retrieved from
van Laer, T., de Ruyter, K., Visconti, M., & Wetzels, M. (2014). The extended transportation-imagery model: A meta-analysis of the antecedents and consequences of consumer’s narrative transportation. Journal of Consumer Research, 40, 797-817.

van Lidth, M., & Schütte, O. (2010). GAM(ismo). Cultura y desarrollo urbano en la gran área metropolitana de Costa Rica. Cuaderno de Ciencias Sociales, N.° 155. Costa Rica: FLACSO.

Vargas, J., & Rosero, L. (2004). La cultura política de la democracia en Costa Rica. Un estudio del proyecto de opinión pública en América Latina (OPAL). San José, CR: Centro Centroamericano de Población.

Villarreal, A., & Silva, B. (2006). Social cohesion, criminal victimization and perceived risk of crime in Brazilian neighborhoods. Social Forces, 84(3), 1725-1753. 10.1353/sof.2006.0073

Weitzer, R., & Kubrin, C. (2004). Breaking news: How local TV news and real-world conditions affect fear of crime. Justice Quarterly, 21(3), 497-520.

Wyant, B. (2008). Multi-level impacts of perceived incivilities and perceptions of crime risk on fear of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 45, 39-64.
Cómo citar
García-Castro, J. D., & Perez Sanchez, R. (2018). Miedo al crimen y efecto de cultivo. Predictores sociales y psicológicos. Universitas Psychologica, 17(3), 1-14.