Publicado May 18, 2017



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F Hurtado

Melissa Andrea N Cardenas

Fernando Cardenas http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8826-6211

Laura Andrea León

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Resumen

La enfermedad de Parkinson (EP) es la patología neurodegenerativa motora con mayor incidencia a nivel mundial. Esta afecta a aproximadamente 2-3% de la población mayor a 60 años de edad y sus causas aún no han sido bien determinadas. Actualmente no existe cura para esta patología; sin embargo, es posible contar con diferentes tratamientos que permiten aliviar algunos de sus síntomas y enlentecer su curso. Estos tratamientos tienen como premisa contrarrestar los efectos ocasionados por la pérdida de la función dopaminérgica de la sustancia nigra (SN) sobre estructuras como el núcleo subtálamico (NST) o globo pálido interno (GPi) ya sea por medio de tratamientos farmacológicos, estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) o con el implante celular. Existen también investigaciones que están dirigiendo su interés al desarrollo de fármacos con potencial terapéutico, que presenten alta especificidad a receptores colinérgicos de nicotina (nAChRs) y antagonistas de receptores de adenosina, específicamente del subtipo A2A. Estos últimos, juegan un papel importante en el control de liberación dopaminérgica y en los procesos de neuroprotección. En esta revisión se pretende ofrecer una panorámica actual sobre algunos de los factores de riesgo asociados a EP, algunos de los tratamientos actuales más utilizados y acerca del rol de sustancias potencialmente útiles en la prevención de esta enfermedad.

Keywords

Parkinson Disease (PD), Deep brain stimulation (DBS), substancia nigra (SN), subthalami nucleus (NST), globo pálido interno (GPi)Enfermedad de Parkinson (EP), estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP), sustancia nigra (SN), núcleo subtálamico (NST), globo pálido interno (GPi)

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Hurtado, F., Cardenas, M. A. N., Cardenas, F., & León, L. A. (2017). La Enfermedad de Parkinson: Etiología, Tratamientos y Factores Preventivos. Universitas Psychologica, 15(5). https://doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.upsy15-5.epet
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