Publicado nov 6, 2018


Google Scholar
Search GoogleScholar

Anne Schlottmann



Nuestras actitudes/creencias típicamente se desarrollan gradualmente, con información que aparece a través del tiempo. Este estudio considera cómo niños de 6 y 9 años (N = 80) forman creencias a partir de información en series, y cómo el orden de la información afecta esto en tareas sociales paralelas y de juicios físicos. Los niños actualizaron sus creencias continuamente después de cada bit de información, o emitieron un juicio al final de las series. Los resultados actualizados mostraron fuertes efectos a corto plazo de la demora en la respuesta; creencias estables, reflejar a todos los informantes, y desarrollo también. Estas creencias estables fueron más débiles en los niños más jóvenes, la demora en la respuesta fue más fuerte. Ambas edades utilizaron una estrategia promedio de huida cuando estaban actualizando los juicios en serie, y una aproximación basada en memoria cuando respondían únicamente al final. La última no produjo demora en las respuestas o diferencias por edad, y generó creencias más fuertes. Se concluye que los niños utilizan las mismas estrategias de juicios en serie que los adultos. Los parámetros del proceso, e.g., los pesos en demora en las respuestas, cambiaron con la complejidad del desarrollo/información, pero incluso los niños más jóvenes formaron efectivamente creencias en serie.


belief updating, belief revision, order effects, recency, children, attitude change, judgment/decision, information integrationactualización de creencias, revisión de creencias, efectos de orden, demora en las respuestas, niños, cambio de actitud, juicio/decisión, integración de la información

Ajzen, I. (2005). Attitudes, personality, and behavior. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

Albarracin, D., Johnson, B.T., & Zanna, M.P. (Eds, 2014). The handbook of attitudes. Psychology Press.

Anderson, N.H. (1981). Foundations of information integration theory. New York: Academic Press

Anderson, N.H. (1996). A functional theory of cognition. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum

Anderson, N.H., & Farkas, A.J. (1973). New light on order effects in attitude change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28, 88-93

Anderson, N.H., & Schlottmann, A. (1991). Developmental study of personal probability. In N. H. Anderson (Ed.), Contributions to information integration theory: Vol. III. Developmental (pp. 111-134). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Asch, S.E. (1946). Forming impressions of personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 41, 258-290

Bayless, S. & Schlottmann, A. (2010). Skill-related uncertainty and expected value in 5- and 7-year-olds. Psicologica. Special Issue on Functional Measurement. 31(3), 677-687.

Bizer, G.Y., Tormala, Z.L., Rucker, D.D., & Petty, R.E. (2006). Memory-based versus on-line processing: Implications for attitude strength. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42(5), 646-653.

Bjorklund, D.F. (Ed., 1990) Children’s strategies. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.

Boseovski, J.J. & Lee, K. (2006). Children’s use of frequency information for trait categorisation and behavioural prediction. Developmental Psychology, 42(3), 500-513.

Boseovski, J.J., Chiu, K., & Marcovitch, S. (2013). Integration of behavioral frequency and intention information in young children's trait attributions. Social Development, 22(1), 38-57.

Busemeyer, J.R. (1991). Intuitive statistical estimation. In N. H. Anderson (Ed.), Contributions to information integration theory: Vol. I. Cognitive (pp. 187-215). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum

Cain, K.M., Heyman, G.D., & Walker, M.E.(1997) Preschoolers’ ability to make dispositional predictions within and across domains. Social Development, 6(1), 54-75.

Chan, C.C., & Tardif, T.(2013). Knowing better: The role of prior knowledge and culture in trust in testimony. Developmental Psychology, 49(3), 591.

Denrell, J. (2005). Why most people disapprove of me: Experience sampling in impression formation. Psychological Review, 112(4), 951-978.

Dreben, E.K., Fiske, S.T., & Hastie, R. (1979). The independence of evaluative and item information: Impression and recall order effects in behavior-based impression formation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1758-1768

Dozier, M. (1991). Functional measurement assessment of young children’s ability to predict future behaviour. Child Development, 62(5), 1091-1099.

Duffy, S., & Crawford, L.E. (2008). Primacy or recency effects in forming inductive categories. Memory & Cognition, 36(3), 567-577.

Ebersbach, M. (2009). Achieving a new dimension: Children integrate three stimulus dimensions in volume estimations. Developmental Psychology, 45(3), 877-883.

Ganea, P.A., Shutts, K., Spelke, E.S., & DeLoache, J.S. (2007). Thinking of things unseen: Infants' use of language to update mental representations. Psychological Science, 18, 734-739.

Ganea, P. A., & Harris, P. L. (2013). Early limits on the verbal updating of an object’s location. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 114(1), 89-101.

Gawronski, B., & Strack, F. (Eds.). (2012). Cognitive consistency: A fundamental principle in social cognition. Guilford Press.

Gelman, S.A. & Markman, E.M. (1986). Categories and induction in young children. Cognition, 23, 183-209

Gerstenberg, T. & Lagnado, D. (2012). When contributions make a difference: Explaining order effects in responsibility attribution.

Gigerenzer, G., & Brighton, H. (2009). Homo heuristicus: Why biased minds make better inferences. Topics in Cognitive Science, 1(1), 107-143.

Giles, J.W., & Heyman, G.D. (2005). Preschoolers use trait‐relevant information to evaluate the appropriateness of an aggressive response. Aggressive Behavior, 31(5), 498-509.

Harris, P.L. (2012). Trusting what you're told: How children learn from others. Harvard University Press.

Hastie, R., & Park, B. (1986). The relationship between memory and judgment depends on whether the judgment task is memory-based or on-line. Psychological Review, 93, 258-268.

Hogarth, H.J. & Einhorn, R.M. (1992). Order effects in belief updating: The belief-adjustment model. Cognitive Psychology, 24, 1-55.

Hovland, C.I. (Ed.). (1957). The order of presentation in persuasion. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Jacobs, J.E., & Narloch, R.H. (2001). Children’s use of sample size and variability to make social inferences. Applied Developmental Psychology, 22, 311–331

Jacobs, J.E. & Potenza, M. (1991). The use of judgment heuristics to make social and object decisions: A developmental perspective. Child Development, 62, 166-178.

Jarrold, C., Hall, D., Harvey, C.E., Tam, H., Towse, J.N., & Zarandi, A.L. (2015). What can we learn about immediate memory from the development of children's free recall? The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68(9), 1871-1894.

Kalish, C.W. (2012). How young children learn from examples: Descriptive and inferential problems. Cognitive Science, 36(8), 1427-1448

Kashima, Y., & & Kerekes, A.R.Z. (1994). A distributed model of averaging phenomena in person impression formation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 30, 407-455.

Keil, F.C. (1989). Concepts, kinds and cognitive development. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

Kuhn, D. (2010). What is scientific thinking and how does it develop? In U. Goswami, Editor, Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive Development (2nd Edition), Chapter 19, pp 492-523. Blackwell, Oxford.

Kruglanski, A.W., & Orehek, E. (2007). Partitioning the domain of social inference: Dual mode and systems models and their alternatives. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 291-316.

Lawson, C.A. (2014). Three-year-olds obey the sample size principle of induction: The influence of evidence presentation and sample size disparity on young children’s generalizations. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 123, 147-154.

Lawson, C.A., & Fisher, A.V. (2011). It’s in the sample: the effects of sample size and diversity on the breadth of inductive generalisation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 110, 499-519.

Liu, D., Gelman, S.A. & Wellman, H.M. (2007). Components of young children’s trait understanding: Behavior-to-trait inferences and trait-to-behavior predictions. Child Development, 78(5), 1543-1558.

Lucas, C.G., Bridgers, S., Griffiths, T.L., & Gopnik, A. (2014). When children are better (or at least more open-minded) learners than adults: Developmental differences in the forms of causal relationships. Cognition, 131, 284-299.

Mackie, D.M., & Asuncion, A.G.(1990). On-line and memory-based modification of attitudes: Determinants of message recall-attitude change correspondence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(1), 5.

Master,A., Markman, E.M., & Dweck, C. (2012). Thinking in categories or along a continuum: Consequences for children’s social judgments. Child Development, 83(4), 1145-1163.

McGraw, K.M., Lodge, M. & Stroh, P. (1990). On-line processing in candidate evaluation: the effects of issue order issue importance and sophistication. Political Behavior, 12(1), 41-58.

McGuire, W.J. (1985). Attitudes and attitude change. In G. L. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3rd ed.), Vol II: Special fields and applications (pp. 233-346). New York: Random House.

Pennington, N. & Hastie, R. (1992). Explaining the evidence: Tests of the story model for juror decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(2), 189-206.

Petty, R.E., & Brinol, P. (2010). Attitude change. Advanced Social Psychology: The State of the Science, 217-259.

Petty, R.E., Tormala, Z.L. Hawkins, C., & Wegener, D.T. (2001). Motivation to think and order effects in persuasion: The moderating role of chunking. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(3), 332-344.

Riskey, D.R. (1979). Verbal memory processes in impression formation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 5, 271-281.

Ronfard, S., & Lane, J. D. (in press). Preschoolers continually adjust their epistemic trust based on an informant’s ongoing accuracy. Child Development.

Tormala, Z.L., & Petty, R.E.(2001). On-line versus memory-based processing: The role of “need to evaluate” in person perception. Personality and social psychology bulletin, 27(12), 1599-1612.

Schäuble, L. (1990). Belief revision in children: the role of prior knowledge and strategies for generating evidence. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 49, 31-57.

Schlottmann, A. (1999). Seeing it happen and knowing how it works: How children understand the relation between perceptual causality and knowledge of underlying mechanism. Developmental Psychology, 35(5), 303-317.

Schlottmann, A., & Anderson, N.H. (1995). Belief revision in children: Serial judgment in social cognition and decision making domains. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21(5), 1349-1364.

Schlottmann, A. & Anderson, N.H. (2007). Belief learning and revision studied with Information Integration Theory. Teorie & Modelli, Special Issue on Applications of Functional Measurement in Psychology, 12(1-2), 63-76.

Shanteau, J. (1970). An additive model for sequential decision making. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 85, 181-191.

Shanteau, J. (1972). Descriptive versus normative models of sequential inference judgment. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 93, 63-68.

Tormala, Z.L., & Petty, R.E. (2001). On-line versus memory-based processing: The role of “need to evaluate” in person perception. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1599-1612.

Trotman, K.T. & Wright, A. (2000). Order effects and recency effects: Where do we go from here? Accounting and Finance, 14(2), 169-182.

Uleman, J.S., Adil Saribay, S., & Gonzalez, C.M. (2008). Spontaneous inferences, implicit impressions, and implicit theories. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 329-360.

Van Overwalle, F., & Labiouse, C. (2004). A recurrent connectionist model of person impression. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8(1), 28-61.

Wang, H., Zhang, J., & Johnson, T.R. (2000). Human belief revision and the order effect. In Twenty-second Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ.

Wang, H., Johnson, T.R. & Zhang, J., & (2006). The order effect in human abductive reasoning: An empirical and computational study. Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 18(2), 215-247

Xu, F. & Garcia, V. (2008). Intuitive statistics by 8-month-old infants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(13), 5012-5015.

Zauberman, G., Diehl, K., & Ariely, D. (2006). Hedonic versus informational valuations: Task dependent preferences for sequences of outcomes. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 19, 191-211.
Cómo citar
Schlottmann, A. (2018). Cómo los niños forman y actualizan creencias a partir de una serie de evidencias. Universitas Psychologica, 17(4), 1–21.