Man as a species has a brain unique in analysis capabilities due to its structure and organizational patterns that are presumably the basis of intelligence and the ability to manipulate the environment. Additionally, the development and evolution of the brain respond underlying genetic processes. Objective. To present an approach to the evolutionary process of the iGluR with the maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian (By) phylogenetic analysis methods. Materials and methods. we used in silico methods to propose a model of molecular evolution and to do a qualitative recognition of synteny blocks for these genes in different species of primates (chimpanzee, orangutan, rhesus monkey and man). Results. Glutamate is the main neurotransmitter and plays an important role in neuronal plasticity and neurotoxicity. Neurotransmission via glutamate is mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluR) NMDA type and non-NMDA type (AMPA and KA). For every phylogenetic inference, we confirmed that the iGluRs of mammals could have evolved from a primitive signaling mechanism, thus explaining similar clusters between some species of primates and rodents. Conclusion. The NR-2 sequences have been exposed to a purifying selection, and the neutral level of divergence is faster in primates than in rodents, however further studies are needed to confirm these theories of evolution.
Key words: evolution in gene families, phylogenetic inference of ML and By, iGluR, AMPA, KA, NMDA.