Correlaciones entre la condición gingival, prácticas, creencias y modelos de comportamiento de salud oral en estudiantes universitarios de Bogotá, Colombia / Correlation Among Gingival Conditions, Oral Hygiene Practices, Beliefs, and Behavior Models ...

Carlos Alberto Serrano Méndez, Martha Alejandra Niño Corredor, Adriana Zuleny Romero Fonseca

Abstract


RESUMEN. Antecedentes: La literatura describe la asociación significativa de múltiples factores sociodemográficos, creencias y patrones de comportamiento con la salud dental y gingival. Objetivo: Evaluar correlaciones entre la salud gingival, factores sociodemográficos, creencias y dos modelos de comportamiento de creencias en salud oral y de autoeficacia oral. Métodos: Ochenta jóvenes estudiantes universitarios con diagnóstico de gingivitis recibieron un examen clínico periodontal y respondieron una encuesta sobre factores sociodemográficos, creencias sobre la salud oral y los modelos psicológicos de creencias en salud y autoeficacia. Se evaluó la correlación entre el porcentaje de hemorragia al sondaje y las otras variables descritas a través de las pruebas estadísticas de Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis y análisis de correlación de Spearman. Resultados: Los estudiantes presentaron un porcentaje de hemorragia al sondaje de 29,7 % y una mínima cantidad de pérdida del nivel de inserción clínico. El porcentaje de sangrado estuvo correlacionado con el grado de conocimiento reportado acerca de la enfermedad gingival, el ser estudiante de odontología y el acudir a citas odontológicas en busca de cuidado preventivo. Los valores totales de las escalas del modelo de creencias en salud y de autoeficacia no estuvieron correlacionados con el sangrado; sin embargo, la escala de autoeficacia estuvo cerca de tener significancia estadística. Conclusiones: El grado de conocimiento acerca de la salud periodontal tuvo una correlación significativa con el porcentaje de hemorragia al sondaje.     

ABSTRACT. Background: Several epidemiological studies have reported significant associations of factors such as demographics, socioeconomic status, beliefs, and health-related behaviors, with dental and gingival health. Purpose: To analyze associations among gingival health, sociodemographic factors, dental beliefs and two models of health-related behavior: oral health beliefs and dental self-efficacy. Methods: Eighty university students diagnosed with gingivitis underwent periodontal examination and filled out a questionnaire about demographics, beliefs about oral health, and health-belief and self-efficacy behavioral models. Possible association between percentage of bleeding on probing and the other variables was analyzed through the Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, and Spearman tests. Results: Percentage of bleeding on probing was 29.7 % and there was a minimal loss of clinical attachment. Bleeding on probing was associated with the reported level of knowledge about periodontal pathology, being a dental student, and attending dental appointments for preventive care. The total scores of answers to questions related to the health-belief and self-efficacy models were not related to bleeding on probing; however, the dental self-efficacy score was close to have statistical significance. Conclusion: The amount of reported knowledge about periodontal health was significantly associated to the percentage of bleeding on probing.


Keywords


adulto joven; autoeficacia; comportamiento en salud; gingivitis; hemorragia al sondaje; modelos de comportamiento; comportamiento en salud; epidemiología oral; periodoncia

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.uo35-75.ccgp

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