Segundos molares mandibulares permanentes impactados en pacientes de 8 a 15 años del programa de presupuesto participativo de Medellín, Colombia / Impacted Permanent Lower Second Molar in 8-to-15-Year-Old Patients of the Participative Budget Program ...

Vanessa David-Pérez, Laura Milena Ospina-Tabares, Matdel Orfindey Carmona-Salcedo, Brayan Joseth Muriel-Urrego, Gabriel Emilio Espinal-Botero, Mónica Tatiana Parada-Sánchez

Abstract


RESUMEN. Antecedentes: La impactación de segundos molares mandibulares permanentes (2MM) se presenta con variaciones considerables según el grupo poblacional. Además de los problemas asociados a esta alteración, podrían requerir tratamientos múltiples y complejos. Por lo tanto, el diagnóstico temprano de una alteración en el proceso de erupción del 2MM es imperativo para reducir el riesgo de impactación, la dificultad de tratamiento y la aparición de problemas asociados en las poblaciones. Propósito: Describir las características de impactación del 2MM en pacientes de 8 a 15 años en una muestra de Medellín, Colombia. Métodos: En este estudio descriptivo retrospectivo se evaluaron 1756 radiografías panorámicas de las cuales 95 presentaron impactación de 2MM. Estas se analizaron según sexo, localización en la mandíbula y tipo de inclinación, y se realizaron 13 mediciones lineales y angulares para identificar parámetros dentoesqueléticos característicos del lado de la impactación. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó estadística descriptiva y la prueba t (p<0,05). Resultados: La prevalencia de impactación fue del 5,4 %. La impactación bilateral con inclinación mesial fue la más frecuente. El lado izquierdo predominó en impactaciones unilaterales. El único parámetro dentoesquelético característico de impactación fue el ángulo de inclinación del 2MM con respecto al plano oclusal, con mayor severidad en el lado izquierdo. Conclusiones: Un ángulo igual o mayor a 112,94° podría indicar riesgo de impactación contra el primer molar mandibular permanente. Por lo tanto, este parámetro debería ser incluido en el análisis radiográfico para el diagnóstico temprano de impactación del 2MM.

ABSTRACT. Background: Permanent mandibular second molar (MM2) impaction has considerable variations depending on the population. In addition to the problems associated to this condition, it could require multiple and complex treatments. Therefore, early diagnosis of any MM2 eruption alteration is mandatory. This approach could reduce the risk of impaction, the difficulty of treatment, and the occurrence of associated problems in the population. Purpose: To describe the characteristics of MM2 impaction in an 8-to-15-year-old sample of patients from Medellin, Colombia. Methods: 1756 panoramic radiographs were evaluated in this descriptive retrospective study. 95 had impacted MM2s. These radiographs were analyzed according to sex, localization in the mandible, and type of inclination. 13 lineal and angular measurements were taken to identify characteristic dentoskeletal parameters of the impaction side. Descriptive statistics and t test were used (p< 0.05) for data analysis. Results: The prevalence of impaction was 5.41 %. Mesial bilateral impaction was more frequent. The left side was predominant in unilateral impactions. The only dentoskeletal characteristic of impaction was the MM2 inclination angle with respect to the occlusal plane, with higher severity on the left side. Conclusion: A > 112.94° angle could indicate impaction risk against the permanent mandibular first molar. Therefore, this parameter should be included in the radiographic analysis for MM2 impaction early diagnosis.


Keywords


diagnóstico; epidemiología oral; ortodoncia; radiología oral; erupción dental; impactación; radiografía; reabsorción radicular; segundo molar mandibular

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.uo36-77.smmp

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Copyright (c) 2017 Vanessa David-Pérez, Laura Milena Ospina-Tabares, Matdel Orfindey Carmona-Salcedo, Brayan Joseth Muriel-Urrego, Gabriel Emilio Espinal-Botero, Mónica Tatiana Parada-Sánchez

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