Surface roughness, Cells proliferation, Ti-alloy implant, Ultrasonic cleaning, Rotary tumbler polishing, Brushing
 A. Jemat, M. J. Ghazali, M. Razali, and Y. Otsuka, "Surface modifications and their effects on titanium dental implants," BioMed research international, vol. 2015, 2015.
 J. Gallo, M. Holinka, and C. S. Moucha, "Antibacterial surface treatment for orthopaedic implants," International journal of molecular sciences, vol. 15, pp. 13849-13880, 2014.
 B. Chehroudi, S. Ghrebi, H. Murakami, J. D. Waterfield, G. Owen, and D. M. Brunette, "Bone formation on rough, but not polished, subcutaneously implanted Ti surfaces is preceded by macrophage accumulation," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, vol. 93, pp. 724-737, 2010.
 A. Wennerberg and T. Albrektsson, "Effects of titanium surface topography on bone integration: a systematic review," Clinical oral implants research, vol. 20, pp. 172-184, 2009.
 K. Vandamme, I. Naert, J. Vander Sloten, R. Puers, and J. Duyck, "Effect of implant surface roughness and loading on peri-implant bone formation," Journal of periodontology, vol. 79, pp. 150-157, 2007.
 S. Grassi, A. Piattelli, L. C. de Figueiredo, M. Feres, L. de Melo, G. Iezzi, et al., "Histologic evaluation of early human bone response to different implant surfaces," Journal of periodontology, vol. 77, pp. 1736-1743, 2006.
 J. E. Ellingsen, C. B. Johansson, A. Wennerberg, and A. Holmén, "Improved retention and bone-to-implant contact with fluoride-modified titanium implants," International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 19, 2004.
 Y. T. Sul, B. S. Kang, C. Johansson, H. S. Um, C. J. Park, and T. Albrektsson, "The roles of surface chemistry and topography in the strength and rate of osseointegration of titanium implants in bone," Journal of biomedical materials research Part A, vol. 89, pp. 942-950, 2009.
 A. Hasçalık and U. Çaydaş, "Electrical discharge machining of titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V)," Applied surface science, vol. 253, pp. 9007-9016, 2007.
 H. Tapiero, D. Townsend, and K. Tew, "Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper," Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy, vol. 57, pp. 386-398, 2003.
 M. Rubianto, "Biokompatibilitas bahan allograft (human bone powder) dibandingkan dengan bahan alloplast (hydroxylapatite)," Kumpulan naskah Temu Ilmiah Nasional I (TIMNAS I) FKG UNAIR, pp. 507-9, 1998.
 C. Telli, A. Serper, A. L. Dogan, and D. Guc, "Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of calcium phosphate root canal sealers by MTT assay," Journal of endodontics, vol. 25, pp. 811-813, 1999.
 E. C. Jameson, Electrical discharge machining: Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 2001.
 N. Qosim, S. Supriadi, Y. Whulanza, and A. Saragih, "Development of Ti-6al-4v Based-Miniplate Manufactured by Electrical Discharge Machining as Maxillofacial Implant," Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, vol. 10, pp. 765-775, 2018.
 J. Rahyussalim A, T. Kurniawati, D. Aprilya, R. Anggraini, G. Ramahdita, and Y. Whulanza, "Toxicity and biocompatibility profile of 3D bone scaffold developed by Universitas Indonesia: A preliminary study," in American Institute of Physics Conference Series, 2017.
 A. F. Kamal, D. Iskandriati, I. H. Dilogo, N. C. Siregar, E. U. Hutagalung, R. Susworo, et al., "Biocompatibility of various hydoxyapatite scaffolds evaluated by proliferation of rat's bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: an in vitro study," Medical Journal of Indonesia, vol. 22, p. 202, 2013.
 R. P. Singh, S. Kumar, R. Nada, and R. Prasad, "Evaluation of copper toxicity in isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and it's attenuation by zinc: ex vivo," Molecular and cellular biochemistry, vol. 282, p. 13, 2006.
 N. Aston, N. Watt, I. Morton, M. Tanner, and G. Evans, "Copper toxicity affects proliferation and viability of human hepatoma cells (HepG2 line)," Human & experimental toxicology, vol. 19, pp. 367-376, 2000.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This journal is registered under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License. Thus, this work may be reproduced, distributed, and publicly shared in digital format, as long as the names of the authors and Pontificia Universidad Javeriana are acknowledged. Others are allowed to quote, adapt, transform, auto-archive, republish, and create based on this material, for any purpose (even commercial ones), provided the authorship is duly acknowledged, a link to the original work is provided, and it is specified if changes have been made. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana does not hold the rights of published works and the authors are solely responsible for the contents of their works; they keep the moral, intellectual, privacy, and publicity rights.
Approving the intervention of the work (review, copy-editing, translation, layout) and the following outreach, are granted through an use license and not through an assignment of rights. This means the journal and Pontificia Universidad Javeriana cannot be held responsible for any ethical malpractice by the authors. As a consequence of the protection granted by the use license, the journal is not required to publish recantations or modify information already published, unless the errata stems from the editorial management process. Publishing contents in this journal does not generate royalties for contributors.