Published Aug 9, 2018


Google Scholar
Search GoogleScholar

Nanang Qosim, MSc

Sugeng Supriadi, BSc

Agung Shamsuddin-Saragih, BSc

Yudan Whulanza, PhD



Objective: This research aims to observe the extent to which several surface treatment techniques increase the surface roughness of titanium alloy implants which was manufactured via electrical discharge machining (EDM). The effects of these techniques were also observed to decrease the Cu content on the implant surface. Materials and Methods: In this research, ultrasonic cleaning, rotary tumbler polishing, and brushing were employed as techniques to increase the roughness of a titanium implant which was manufactured via EDM, to the moderately rough category, and to reduce the contaminant element deposited on its surface. An MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay test was also used to observe the effect of these engineered specimens with respect to mesenchymal stem cells’ proliferation. Results and Discussion: The results show that ultrasonic cleaning and rotary tumbler polishing created a significant increase (90% and 67%, respectively) in the surface roughness. On the other hand, brushing was shown to be the best benchmark for reducing the contamination of Copper (Cu). Furthermore, rotary tumbler polishing and brushing can increase the percentage of living cells compared to the original surface EDM specimens. Conclusion: All micro-finishing methods that were employed are able to increase the surface roughness of Ti alloy based-implant to moderately rough category.


Surface roughness, Cells proliferation, Ti-alloy implant, Ultrasonic cleaning, Rotary tumbler polishing, BrushingRugosidad de la superficie, Proliferación de células, Implante de aleación de Titanio, Limpieza ultrasónica, Pulidor de tambor rotativo, Cepillado

[1] L. Le Guéhennec, A. Soueidan, P. Layrolle, and Y. Amouriq, “Surface treatments of titanium dental implants for rapid osseointegration,” Dental Materials, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 844-854, 2007. [Online]. Available:
[2] A. Jemat, M. J. Ghazali, M. Razali, and Y. Otsuka, “Surface modifications and their effects on titanium dental implants,” BioMed Res Int, vol. 2015, 2015. [Online]. Available:
[3] J. Gallo, M. Holinka, and C. S. Moucha, “Antibacterial surface treatment for orthopaedic implants,” Int J Mol Sci, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 13849-13880, Aug 2014. [Online]. Available:
[4] B. Chehroudi, S. Ghrebi, H. Murakami, J. D. Waterfield, G. Owen, and D. M. Brunette, “Bone formation on rough, but not polished, subcutaneously implanted Ti surfaces is preceded by macrophage accumulation,” J Biomed Mater Res A, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 724-737, May 2010. [Online]. Available:
[5] A. Wennerberg and T. Albrektsson, “Effects of titanium surface topography on bone integration: a systematic review,” Clin Oral Implants Res, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 172-184, Sep 2009. [Online]. Available:
[6] K. Vandamme, I. Naert, J. Vander Sloten, R. Puers, and J. Duyck, “Effect of implant surface roughness and loading on peri-implant bone formation,” J Periodontol, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 150-157, Jan 2007. [Online]. Available:
[7] S. Grassi, A. Piattelli, L. C. de Figueiredo, M. Feres, L. de Melo, G. Iezzi, et al., “Histologic evaluation of early human bone response to different implant surfaces,” J Periodontol, vol. 77, no. 10, pp. 1736-1743, Oct 2006. [Online]. Available: Histologic evaluation of early human bone response to different implant surfaces
[8] J. E. Ellingsen, C. B. Johansson, A. Wennerberg, and A. Holmén, “Improved retention and bone-to-implant contact with fluoride-modified titanium implants,” Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants, vol. 19, no. 5, Sep-Oct 2004.
[9] Y. T. Sul, B. S. Kang, C. Johansson, H. S. Um, C. J. Park, and T. Albrektsson, “The roles of surface chemistry and topography in the strength and rate of osseointegration of titanium implants in bone,” J Biomed Mater Res A, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 942-950, Jun 2009. [Online]. Available:
[10] A. Hasçalık and U. Çaydaş, “Electrical discharge machining of titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V),” Appl Surf Sci, vol. 253, no. 22, pp. 9007-9016, Sep 2007. [Online]. Available:
[11] H. Tapiero, D. W. Townsend, and K. D. Tew, “Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper,” Biomed Pharmacotherapy, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 386-398, Nov 2003. [Online]. Available:
[12] M. Rubianto, “Biokompatibilitas bahan allograft (human bone powder) dibandingkan dengan bahan alloplast (hydroxylapatite),” Kumpulan naskah Temu Ilmiah Nasional I (TIMNAS I) FKG UNAIR, pp. 507-9, 1998.
[13] C. Telli, A. Serper, A. L. Dogan, and D. Guc, “Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of calcium phosphate root canal sealers by MTT assay,” J Endodontics, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 811-813, Dec 1999. [Online]. Available:
[14] E. C. Jameson, Electrical discharge machining: Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 2001.
[15] N. Qosim, S. Supriadi, Y. Whulanza, and A. Saragih, “Development of Ti-6al-4v Based-Miniplate Manufactured by Electrical Discharge Machining as Maxillofacial Implant,” J Fund Appl Sci, vol. 10, pp. 765-775, 2018.
[16] J. Rahyussalim, T. Kurniawati, D. Aprilya, R. Anggraini, G. Ramahdita, and Y. Whulanza, “Toxicity and biocompatibility profile of 3D bone scaffold developed by Universitas Indonesia: A preliminary study,” in AIP Conf 1817, 2017. [Online]. Available:
[17] A. F. Kamal, D. Iskandriati, I. H. Dilogo, N. C. Siregar, E. U. Hutagalung, R. Susworo, et al., “Biocompatibility of various hydoxyapatite scaffolds evaluated by proliferation of rat’s bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: an in vitro study,” MJI, vol. 22, no. 4, p. 202-208, 2013. [Online]. Available:
[18] R. P. Singh, S. Kumar, R. Nada, and R. Prasad, “Evaluation of copper toxicity in isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and it’s attenuation by zinc: ex vivo,” Mol Cell Biochem, vol. 282, no. 1-2, pp. 13-21, Jan 2006. [Online]. Available:
[19] N. Aston, N. Watt, I. Morton, M. Tanner, and G. Evans, “Copper toxicity affects proliferation and viability of human hepatoma cells (HepG2 line),” Hum Exp Toxicol, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 367-376, Jun 2000. [Online]. Available:
How to Cite
Qosim, N., Supriadi, S., Shamsuddin-Saragih, A., & Whulanza, Y. (2018). Surface treatments of ti-alloy based bone implant manufactured by electrical discharge machining. Ingenieria Y Universidad, 22(2).
Bioengineering and chemical engineering