Published Jul 30, 2015


Google Scholar
Search GoogleScholar

Paulo Alonso Gaona-García, PhD

Carlos Enrique Montenegro-Marin, PhD

Elvis Eduardo Gaona-García, MSc



Currently, there are a variety of digital resources hosted on the Internet, based on access points such as digital libraries and repositories. The majority of strategies to store information are used by specialized documentation centers, academic institutions, and databases of regional development policies. These entities have been directing their efforts to improve the access over a collection of digital resources for academic and professional purposes. There is still a lot of educational material that is hosted on content management tools known as Learning Content Management System (LCMS); however, those tools do not perform the corresponding indexing of digital resources for the use of repositories. In fact, this requirement reduces the access to digital resources even from the inside of each academic institution, losing coverage and recognition in other learning environments. Moreover, this factor also limits the enrichment and linking of related academic material. Then, strategies such as Linked Data cannot be extensively used to share digital resources. Therefore, this article aims to devise an indexing strategy to manage digital resources hosted in different LCMS by defining services that facilitate the exchange of digital resources and their reuse. Case Study: Efront and Moodle platforms.


indexing, learning objects, metadata, semantic web, software agentsagentes de software, indexación, objetos de aprendizaje, LCMS, reutilización, metadatos, web semántica

[1] T. Berners-Lee, “Linked data-the story so far”, International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1-22, 2009.
[2] S. Auer, C. Bizer, G. Kobilarov, J. Lehmann, R. Cyganiak, and Z. Ives, “Dbpedia. A nucleus for a web of open data”, in The semantic web, Philadelphia: Springer, 2007, pp. 722-735.
[3] Open Discovery Space (ODS), Open Discovery Space, 2015 [online]. Available: Jan. 17, 2015.
[4] M. Fakhimi, L. Stergioulas, et al. “Methodology and evaluation framework for measuring impact of and e-learning platform”, EDULEARN14 Proceedings: 2150-2155, 2014.
[5] Europeana, Europeana professional, 2015 [online]. Available: Accessed Jan. 17, 2015.
[6] B. Haslhofer and A. Isaac, “ The Europeana Linked Open Data Pilot”, in Proc. Of the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications, Sep 21-23, 2011, The Hague, Netherlands, 2011.
[7] A. Miles, B. Matthews, M. Wilson, and D. Brickley, “SKOS core: simple knowledge organisation for the web” in Proc. at the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications “Metadata Vocabularies in Practice”, Sep. 12-15, 2005, Leganés, Madrid, Spain.
[8] J. Lacasta, J. Nogueras-Iso, et al., “ThManager. An open source tool for creating and visualizing SKOS”. Information Technology and Libraries, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 39-51, 2013.
[9] M. Hearst, Search user interfaces. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
[10] M. Khoo, D. Kusunoki, and C. MacDonald, “Finding Problems. When Digital Library Users Act as Usability Evaluators”, in Proc. at the System Science (HICSS), 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on, Jan 4-7, 2012.
[11] H. Kim and Y. Kim, “Usability study of digital institutional repositories”, Electronic Library, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 863-881, 2008.
[12] LOM, “LOM Standard. Draft Standard for Learning Object Metadata”, in IEEE P1484.12/D4.0, 2003 [online]. Available: Accessed Jan. 17, 2015.
[13] SCORM, SCORM, Sharable Content Object Reference Model, 2004 [online]. Available: Accessed Jan. 17, 2015.
[14] C. Cechinel, S. Sánchez, and M. Sicilia, “Empirical analysis of errors on human-generated learning objects metadata”, Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol. 46, pp. 60-70, 2009.
[15] J. Fernández, “Modelos de recuperación de información basados en redes de creencia”, tesis doctoral, Universidad de Granada, España, 2001.
[16] J. Pastor, “Diseño de un sistema colaborativo para la creación y gestión de tesauros en Internet basado en SKOS” PhD thesis, 2009.
[17] F. O. Bello-Pérez y J. N. Pérez-Castillo, “Interoperabilidad entre los dominios de la arquitectura, la ingeniería y la construcción y los sistemas de información geográfica1”, Ingeniería y Universidad, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 183-200, 2012.
[18] M. L. Nelson, “Better interoperability through the open archives initiative”, New Review of Information Networking, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 133-145, 2001.
[19] OAI, The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting, 2002 [online]. Available: Accessed Jan. 17, 2015.
[20] X. Bullón, “La visibilidad y los recursos educativos. Técnicas de recolección de metadatos mediante OAI-PMH y LOM”, Idea La Mancha: Revista de Educación de Castilla-La Mancha. Toledo, no. 5, pp. 106-113, 2007.
[21] M. Lytras and M. Sicilia, “Where is the value in metadata?”, International Journal of Metadata, Semantics and Ontologies, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 235-241, 2007.
[22] S. Sánchez and M. Sicilia, “Relationships and commitments in learning object metadata”, Proc. ITHET 2004 - 5th Int. Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training. IEEE, 2004.
[23] D. Gašević, D. Djurić, and V. Devedzic, Model driven engineering and ontology development. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2009.
[24] J. Gero, “Design prototypes. A knowledge representation schema for design”, AI Magazine, vol. 11, no. 4, p. 26, 1990.
[25] M. Genesereth and S. Ketchpel, “Software agents”, Commun. ACM, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 48-53, 1994.
[26] N. R. Jennings, “On agent-based software engineering”, Artificial Intelligence, vo. 117, no. 2, pp. 277-296, 2000.
[27] S. Franklin and A. Graesser, “Is it an Agent, or just a Program? A taxonomy for autonomous agents”, in Intelligent Agents III Agent Theories, Architectures, and Languages. Berlin: Springer, 1997, pp. 21-35.
[28] H. Kreger, “Fulfilling the Web services promise”, Commun. ACM, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 29-ff, 2003. doi: 10.1145/777313.777334
[29] M. Champion, C. Ferris, E. Newcomer, and D. Orchard, Web services architecture, working draft, 2004 [online]. Available: Accessed Jan 17, 2015.
[30] IMS, IMS Global Learning Consortium Inc. Overview of Specifications, disposable in, 2013 [online].Available: Accessed Jan 17, 2015.
[31] J. Golbeck, B. Parsia, and J. Hendler, Trust networks on the semantic web. Berlin: Springer, 2003.
[32] M. Richardson, R. Agrawal, and P. Domingos, “Trust management for the semantic web”, in The Semantic Web-ISWC 2003. Berlin: Springer, 2003, pp. 351-368.
[33] P. Gaona-García, J. Soto, and C. Montenegro, “Trust levels definition on virtual learning platforms through semantic languages”, International Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence, vol. 1, no. 3, 2010.
[34] O. Corcho, M. Fernández-López, A. Gómez-Pérez, and A. López-Cima, “Building legal ontologies with METHONTOLOGY and WebODE”, in Law and the Semantic Web. Berlin: Springer, 2005, pp. 142-157.
[35] M. Fernández-López, A. Gómez-Pérez, and N. Juristo, Methontology: from ontological art towards ontological engineering, 1997 [online]. Available:
[36] M. Fernández-López and O. Corcho, Ontological Engineering: with examples from the areas of Knowledge Management, e-Commerce and the Semantic Web. Berlin: Springer, 2010.
[37] P. Gaona-García, D. Martín, A. Fermoso, and S. Sánchez, “A usability study of taxonomyvisualization user interfaces in digital repositories”, Journal Online Information Review, vol. 38, no. 2, 2014.
[38] G. Tsakonas and C. Papatheodorou, “Exploring usefulness and usability in the evaluation of open access digital libraries”, Information Processing & Management, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 1234-1250, 2008.
[39] J. Park, “Metadata quality in digital repositories: A survey of the current state of the art”, Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, vol. 47, no. 3-4, pp. 213-228, 2009.
[40] J.Y.L. Thong, W. Hong, and K.-Y. Tam, “Understanding user acceptance of digital libraries: What are the roles of interface characteristics, organizational context, and individual differences?”, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 215-242, 2002.
[41] P. Gaona-García, S. Sánchez-Alonso, et al., “Visualization of information. A proposal to improve the search and access to digital resources in repositories”. Ingeniería e Investigación, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 83-89, 2014.
[42] D. Martin-Moncunill, S. Sánchez Alonso, P. Gaona-García, N. Marianos, “Applying visualization techniques to develop interfaces for educational repositories. The case of Organic. Lingua and VOA3R”, 2013 [online]. Available:
[43] C. E. Montenegro Marín, P.A. Gaona-García, E. E. Gaona García,., “Plataforma de seguridad basado en autenticidad de contenidos sobre conjunto de especificaciones SCORM”. Revista Ingeniería y Competitividad, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 51-68, 2011.
[44] G. Draper, Y. Livnat, and R. Riesenfeld, “A survey of radial methods for information visualization”, Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 759-776, 2009. doi: 10.1109/tvcg.2009.23
[45] M. Gleicher, D. Albers, R. Walker, I. Jusufi, C. D. Hansen, and. J. Roberts, “Visual comparison for information visualization”, Information Visualization, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 289-309, 2011.
[46] M. Graham and J. Kennedy, “A survey of multiple tree visualization”, Information Visualization, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 235-252, 2010.
[47] I. Herman, G. Melancon, and M. S. Marshall, “Graph visualization and navigation in information visualization. A survey”, Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 24-43, 2000. doi: 10.1109/2945.841119
How to Cite
Gaona-García, P. A., Montenegro-Marin, C. E., & Gaona-García, E. E. (2015). Model of learning objects exchange between LCMS platforms through intelligent agents. Ingenieria Y Universidad, 19(2), 145–167.