Published Dec 7, 2015


Google Scholar
Search GoogleScholar

Sindy L. Ramirez-P, PhD

Carlos A. Lozano-Moncada, PhD



A power system is subject to disturbances that may lead to voltage stability problems, which eventually may lead to black-outs. On-line phasor measurements may allow anticipating situations leading to voltage instabilities; these on-line measurements can be accomplished by using Phasor Measurement Units – PMU. However, for a power system is not economical or necessary to install PMU at each bus; in order to avoid this situation, it is required to develop a strategy for PMU placement that is useful and convenient, with a limited number of available PMU. This paper presents a review and comparison of some methods for PMU placement in power systems; also, a classification according to the type of observability is done and the application of the method is considered. Finally, a method for monitoring voltage stability in power systems is chosen and it is tested on the IEEE39-bus system using Matlab-Power System Analysis Toolbox PSAT.


Phasor measurement unit (PMU), voltage stability, contingency, optimal PMU placement, Power SystemUnidad de Medición Fasorial (PMU), estabilidad de tensión, contingencia, óptima ubicación de PMU, Sistemas de Potencia

[1] P. Zhang, “Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) implementation and applications,” Electr. Power Res. Inst. EPRI, Rep. Final 2007, 2007.
[2] K. K. More and H. T. Jadhav, “A literature review on optimal placement of phasor measurement units,” in 2013 International Conference on Power, Energy and Control (ICPEC), 2013, pp. 220-224.
[3] A. S. Deese, T. Nugent, and S. Coppi, “A comparative study of optimal PMU placement algorithms for cost minimization,” presented at 2014 IEEE PES General Meeting Conference & Exposition, 2014, pp. 1-5.
[4] H. G. Abood and V. Sreeram, “A review on phasor measurement units placement for state estimation studies,” presented at 2014 Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC), 2014, pp. 1–6.
[5] P. S. Sreenivasa Reddy, S. P. Chowdhury, and S. Chowdhury, “PMU placement - a comparative survey and review,” presented at 10th IET International Conference on Developments in Power System Protection (DPSP 2010). Managing the Change, 2010, pp. P51–P51.
[6] W. Yuill, A. Edwards, S. Chowdhury, and S. P. Chowdhury, “Optimal PMU placement: A comprehensive literature review,” presented at 2011 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2011, pp. 1–8.
[7] N. M. Manousakis, G. N. Korres, and P. S. Georgilakis, “Optimal placement of phasor measurement units: A literature review,” presented at 2011 16th International Conference on Intelligent System Applications to Power Systems, 2011, pp. 1–6.
[8] T. T. e Lopes, “Estimadores de estado em sistemas de energia elétrica incluindo restrições fuzzy,” PhD Thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2008. [Online]. Available at:
[9] R. Sodhi and S. C. Srivastava, “Optimal PMU placement to ensure observability of power system,” presented at Fifteenth Natl. Power Syst. Conf. (NPSC), IIT Bombay, no. December, 2008.
[10] R. F. Nuqui, A. G. Phadke, and L. Fellow, “Phasor measurement unit placement techniques for complete and incomplete observability,” Power Deliv. IEEE Trans., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 2381-2388, 2005.
[11] J. Peng, Y. Sun, and H. Wang, “Optimal PMU placement for full network observability using Tabu search algorithm,” Electr. Power Energy Syst., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 223-231, May 2006.
[12] R. Emami and A. Abur, “Robust measurement design by placing synchronized phasor measurements on network branches,” Power Syst. IEEE Trans., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 38-43, 2010.
[13] Z. Hong-Shan, L. Ying, M. Zeng-qiang, and Y. Lei, “Sensitivity constrained PMU placement for complete observability of power systems,” Transm. Distrib. Conf. Exhib. Asia Pacific, 2005 IEEE/PES, pp. 1–5, 2005.
[14] B. Mohammadi-Ivatloo and S. H. Hosseini, “Optimal PMU Placement for power system observability considering secondary voltage control,” Electr. Comput. Eng. 2008. CCECE 2008. Can. Conf., pp. 365-368, 2008.
[15] R. Sodhi, S. C. Srivastava, and S. N. Singh, “Optimal PMU placement method for complete topological and numerical observability of power system,” Electr. Power Syst. Res., vol. 80, no. 9, pp. 1154-1159, Sep. 2010.
[16] A. Ahmadi, Y. Alinejad-Beromi, and M. Moradi, “Optimal PMU placement for power system observability using binary particle swarm optimization and considering measurement redundancy,” Expert Syst. Appl., vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 7263-7269, Jun. 2011.
[17] S. Das, D. Ghosh, T. Ghose, and D. K. Mohanta, “Simulation of wide area measurement system with optimal phasor measurement unit location,” presented at 2014 International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 2014, pp. 226-230.
[18] T. L. Baldwin, L. Mili, M. B. Boisen, and R. Adapa, “Power system observability with minimal phasor measurement placement,” Power Syst. IEEE Trans., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 707-715, May 1993.
[19] G. B. Denegri, M. Invernizzi, F. Milano, M. Fiorina, and P. Scarpellini, “A security oriented approach to pmu positioning for advanced monitoring of a transmission grid,” Power Syst. Technol. 2002. Proceedings. PowerCon 2002. Int. Conf., vol. 2, pp. 798-803, 2002.
[20] C. Madtharad, S. Premrudeepreechacharn, N. R. Watson, and D. Saenrak, “Measurement placement method for power system state estimation: part I,” Power Eng. Soc. Gen. Meet., vol. 3, pp. 1629-1632, 2003.
[21] S. Chakrabarti, E. Kyriakides, and M. Albu, “Uncertainty in power system state variables obtained through synchronized measurements,” Instrum. Meas. IEEE Trans., vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 2452-2458, 2009.
[22] A. Gamm, I. Kolosok, A. Glazunova, and E. Korkina, “PMU placement criteria for EPS state estimation,” Electr. Util. Deregul. Restruct. Power Technol. 2008. DRPT 2008. Third Int. Conf., pp. 645-649, 2008.
[23] J. E. Anderson and A. Chakrabortty, “PMU placement for dynamic equivalencing of power systems under flow observability constraints,” Electr. Power Syst. Res., vol. 106, pp. 51-61, Jan. 2014.
[24] X. Li, A. Scaglione, and T.-H. Chang, “Optimal sensor placement for hybrid state estimation in smart grid,” presented at 2013 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, 2013, pp. 5253-5257.
[25] X. Li, A. Scaglione, and T.-H. Chang, “A framework for phasor measurement placement in hybrid state estimation via Gauss–Newton,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 824-832, Mar. 2014.
[26] H. Zhu and Y. Shi, “Phasor measurement unit placement for identifying power line outages in wide-area transmission system monitoring,” presented at 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2014, pp. 2483-2492.
[27] M. B. Mohammadi, R.-A. Hooshmand, and F. H. Fesharaki, “A new approach for optimal placement of PMUs and Their required communication infrastructure in order to minimize the cost of the WAMS,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. PP, no. 99, pp. 1-1, 2015.
[28] B. Gou, “Optimal placement of PMUs by integer linear programming,” Power Syst. IEEE Trans., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1525-1526, 2008.
[29] B. Gou, “Generalized integer linear programming formulation for optimal PMU placement,” Power Syst. IEEE Trans., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1099-1104, 2008.
[30] B. Xu and A. Abur, “Observability analysis and measurement placement for systems with PMUs,” Power Syst. Conf. Expo., vol. 2, pp. 943-946, 2004.
[31] B. Milosevic and M. Begovic, “Nondominated sorting genetic algorithm for optimal phasor measurement placement,” Power Syst. IEEE Trans., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 69-75, 2003.
[32] F. Aminifar, C. Lucas, A. Khodaei, and M. Fotuhi-firuzabad, “Optimal placement of phasor measurement units using immunity genetic algorithm,” Power Deliv. IEEE Trans., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1014-1020, 2009.
[33] S. Geramian, H. A. Abyane, and K. Mazlumi, “Determination of optimal PMU placement for fault location using genetic algorithm,” Harmon. Qual. Power, 2008. ICHQP 2008. 13th Int. Conf., pp. 1–5, 2008.
[34] M. Campos and M. Arias, “Ubicación óptima de unidades de medición fasorial aplicando swarm intelligence,” 2010. [Online]. Available at: 2010/fscommand/web/docs/T1100.pdf.
[35] J. Liu, F. Ponci, A. Monti, C. Muscas, P. A. Pegoraro, and S. Sulis, “Optimal meter placement for robust measurement systems in active distribution grids,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 1096-1105, May 2014.
[36] K. J. Makasa and G. K. Venayagamoorthy, “On-line voltage stability load index estimation based on PMU measurements,” Power Energy Soc. Gen. Meet. 2011 IEEE, pp. 1–6, 2011.
[37] I. Smon, G. Verbic, and F. Gubina, “Local voltage-stability index using tellegen’s theorem,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 1267–1275, 2006.
[38] B. Milosevic and M. Begovic, “Voltage-stability protection and control using a wide-area network of phasor measurements,” Power Syst. IEEE Trans., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 121-127, 2003.
[39] V. Salehi, A. Mazloomzadeh, and O. Mohammed, “Development and implementation of a phasor measurement unit for real-time monitoring, control and protection of power systems,” presented at 2011 IEEE, Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2011, pp. 1-7.
[40] F. Gubina and B. Strmcnik, “Voltage collapse proximity index determination using voltaje phasors approach,” Power Syst. IEEE Trans., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 788-794, May 1995.
[41] D. E. Julian, R. P. Schulz, K. T. Vu, W. H. Quaintance, N. B. Bhatt, and D. Novosel, “Quantifying proximity to voltage collapse using the Voltage Instability Predictor (VIP),” Power Eng. Soc. Summer Meet. 2000. IEEE, vol. 2, pp. 931-936, 2000.
[42] M. Nizam, A. Mohamed, and A. Hussain, “Dynamic voltage collapse prediction on a practical power system using power transfer stability index,” in Research and Development, 2007. SCOReD 2007. 5th Student Conference on, 2007, no. December, pp. 1-6.
[43] R. Sodhi, S. C. Srivastava, and S. N. Singh, “Optimal PMU placement to ensure system observability under contingencies,” Power Energy Soc. Gen. Meet. 2009. PES ’09. IEEE, pp. 1-6, 2009.
[44] F. Milano, “PSAT, Matlab-based Power System Analysis Toolbox.” [Online]. Available at:
How to Cite
Ramirez-P, S. L., & Lozano-Moncada, C. A. (2015). Comparison of PMU placement methods in power systems for voltage stability monitoring. Ingenieria Y Universidad, 20(1), 41–62.
Electrical and computer engineering