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Angela Muñoz-Machicao https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6891-3469

Manuel Fernández Alcántara https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3481-8156

Cayetana Correa- Delgado https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4279-6548

Amanda Rocío González Ramirez https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4588-6717

Miguel Pérez García https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4775-7556

Carolina Laynez Rubio

Resumen

La memoria visual se define como la habilidad para recordar imágenes visuales en forma de objetos eventos o palabras. Investigaciones previas en niños con dificultades de aprendizaje se han centrado principalmente en la relación entre la memoria visual y el fracaso escolar. Objetivos: Desarrollar una prueba de memoria visual usando imágenes de objetos familiares y determinar sus valores normativos y evidencias de validez en una población de niños que padecen dificultades de aprendizaje además de un grupo control. Métodos y procedimientos: Un total de 330 niños participaron en este estudio (7-14 años), 190 padecían algún tipo de dificultad de aprendizaje y 140 no tenían ningún diagnóstico. La memoria visual fue evaluada usado una prueba (VMT-SP) basada en las figuras de Snodgrass que evaluó la memoria a corto, largo plazo y el reconocimiento. También se utilizó la figura compleja de Rey y el Hooper Visual Organisation Test. Resultados: Los resultados de las tres variables del VMP-SP difirieron significativamente en niños con dificultades de aprendizaje del grupo control. Las puntuaciones fueron influenciadas por la edad (con un mayor porcentaje de respuestas correctas proporcionadas por los niños de más edad), el género, el nivel educativo de la madre y el hábitat. Finalmente se encontró una correlación moderada con otras pruebas de memoria visual. Conclusiones: VMT-SP es una nueva herramienta clínica para la evaluación de la memoria visual. Se ha presentado evidencia de su validez concurrente y su aplicabilidad en la evaluación de niños que padecen dificultades de aprendizaje.

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Keywords

memoria visual, dificultades de aprendizaje, neuropsicología, niños

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Cómo citar
Muñoz-Machicao, A., Fernández Alcántara, M., Correa- Delgado, C., González Ramirez, A., Pérez García, M., & Laynez Rubio, C. (2019). Prueba de Memoria Visual basada en imágenes de Snodgrass (VMT-SP): una nueva medida neuropsicológica de memoria visual para niños con Dificultades de Aprendizaje. Universitas Psychologica, 18(2), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.upsy18-2.vmtb
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