Published Dec 30, 2020


Google Scholar
Search GoogleScholar

Simón Pineda-Cendales

Elkin Hernández-Rolong

Juan E. Carvajal-Cogollo



Mammalian populations are fundamental at functional and ecological levels within ecosystems and are inconstant threat of reduction world wide and in the Neotropic. We evaluated population variables, habitat use, and threats to medium and large mammals (weight > 1 kg) in the terrestrial part of the Tayrona National Natural Park (Santa Marta-Colombia). We carried out in direct annual observations with camera traps between 2012 and 2017, both in rainy and dry seasons. We estimated the richness, relative abundance (RAI), and functional diversity of the mammals present in the area. We recorded 15 species, distributed in seven orders (Carnivora, Rodentia, Pilosa, Cingulata, Lagomorpha, Didelphimorphia, and Cetartiodactyla), 11 families and 13 genera. The species with the highest capture frequency was Dasyprocta punctata (142, RAI = 0.85), followed by Cuniculus paca (56, RAI = 0.33), Odocoileus virginianus (51, RAI = 0.30), and Cerdocyon thous (41, RAI = 0.24). We observed a marked use and preference of habitat in the seasonal dry ever green forest. This finding coincides with the highest value of functional richness (S1= 293.88) for this ecosystem, probably due to its features, such as green vegetation and abundant water streams. Our results reveal stability of the species richness across the years studied, suggesting good health of the mammal populations in the studied area.


Habitat occupation, ;dry forest, taxonomic diversity, functional diversity, MammaliaEnglish

Alberico M, Rojas-Díaz V. Mamíferos de Colombia. Diversidad y conservación de los mamíferos neotropicales, Conabio-UNAM, México, DF, 185-226 pp, 2002.

Allaire J. RStudio: integrated development environment for R. Boston, MA, 770, 394, 2012.

Baltz DM. Autecology. In Methods for fish biology. Edited by C.B Schreck and P.B. Moyle. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Md. pp. 585-607, 1990.

Banda K, Delgado-Salinas A, Dexter KG, Linares-Palomino R, Oliveira-Filho A, Prado D, Weintritt, J. Plant diversity patterns
in neotropical dry forests and their conservation implications. Science, 353(6306):1383-1387, 2016.
doi: 10.1126/science.aaf5080

Barbosa-Rojas AL, Calderón-Acero, LV, Calderón-Capote MC, Castro-Fajardo AM, Castro-Ramírez S, Cifuentes-Gil YL, Cortés-
Guzmán D, Currea-Moncaleano S, Díaz-Melo JJ, Duque-Duque FA, Flórez-Ariza GC, Gómez-Cano FA, González-Acero LX,
González-Saldarriaga S, Guzmán-Calderón VH, Henao-Cárdenas MM, Landínez-Macías MP, Ramírez-Castañeda V, Yela-Melo
WD. Estudio Regional Continental del Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona y Zonas Aledañas (Rodadero). Agencia de Noticias. Bogotá DC Universidad Nacional-Colombia, 2012.

Beale CM, Monaghan P. Behavioural responses to human disturbance: a matter of choice? Animal Behaviour, 68(5): 1065-1069, 2004.
doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2004.07.002

Beier P, Noss RF. Do habitat corridors provide connectivity? Conservation biology, 12(6): 1241-1252, 1998.
doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.1998.98036.x

Bodmer RE, Eisenberg JF, Redford KH. Hunting and the likelihood of extinction of Amazonian mammals. Conservation Biology, 11 (2): 460-466, 1997.
doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1997.96022.x

Carbone C, Teacher A, Rowcliffe JM. The costs of carnivory. PLoS Biology, 5: 363-368, 2007.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050022

Carbonó-De la Hoz E, García-Q H. La vegetación terrestre en la ensenada de Neguanje, Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona
(Magdalena, Colombia). Caldasia, 32:235-256, 2010.

Ceballos G, Ehrlich PR. Mammal population losses and the extinction crisis. Science, 296(5569): 904-907, 2002.
doi: 10.1126/science.1069349

Ceballos G, Oliva G. Los mamíferos silvestres de México. México DF: Fondo de cultura económica, Vol 986, 2005.
Chao A, Gotelli NJ, Hsieh TC, Sander EL, Ma KH, Colwell RK, Ellison AM. Rarefaction and extrapolation with Hill numbers:
a framework for sampling and estimation in species diversity studies. Ecological monographs, 84(1): 45-67, 2014.

Chao A, Jost L. Coverage-based rarefaction and extrapolation: standardizing samples by completeness rather than size. Ecology, 93(12): 2533-2547, 2012.
doi: 10.1890/11-1952.1

Chapin III FS, Zavaleta ES, Eviner VT, Naylor RL, Vitousek PM, Reynolds HL, Hooper DU, Lavorel S, Sala OE, Hobbie SE, Mack
MC, Díaz S. Consequences of changing biodiversity. Nature, 405(6783): 234-242, 2000.
doi: 10.1038/35012241

Colwell RK, Futuyma DJ. On the measurement of niche breadth and overlap. Ecology, 52(4): 567-576, 1971.

Conover MR. Resolving human-wildlife conflicts: the science of wildlife damage management. CRC press, 2001.
doi: 10.2307/1934144

Crawshaw PG, Quigley HB. Jaguar spacing, activity and habitat use in a seasonally flooded environment in Brazil. Journal of Zoology, 223:357-370, 1991.
doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.1991.tb04770.x

Damuth J. Home range, home range overlap, and species energy use among herbivorous mammals. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 15(3): 185-193, 1981.
doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.1981.tb00758.x

Debata S, Swain KK. Estimating mammalian diversity and relative abundance using camera traps in a tropical deciduous forest of Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary, eastern India. Mammal study, 43(1): 45-53, 2018.
doi: 10.3106/ms2017-0078

Díaz S, Cabido M. Vive la différence: plant functional diversity matters to ecosystem processes. Trends in ecology & evolution, 16(11): 646-655, 2001.
doi: 10.1016/S0169-5347(01)02283-2

Dillon A, Kelly MJ. Ocelot home range, overlap and density: comparing radio telemetry with camera trapping. Journal of Zoology, 275:391-398, 2008.
doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2008.00452.x

Espinal LS, Montenegro E. Bosque seco tropical. Pp. 22-67. In: Espinal LS (ed.). Formaciones vegetales de Colombia. Instituto Geográfico Agustín Codazzi. Bogotá, Colombia, 1963.

Etter A, Andrade A, Amaya P, Arévalo P. Estado de los ecosistemas colombianos-2014: una aplicación de la metodología de lista roja de ecosistemas Bogota, Colombia: From Alaska to Patagonia. IUCN Red List of the Continental Ecosystems of the Americans, 2015.

Forero-Medina G, Joppa L. Representation of global and national conservation priorities by Colombia's protected area network. PLoS One, 5(10) e13210, 2010.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013210

Galindo Leal C, Weber M. El venado de la Sierra Madre Occidental: ecología manejo y conservación (No. 636.294 G3), 1988.
Gallina S, González-Romero A, Manson RH. Mamíferos pequeños y medianos. In: Mason RH (ed) Agroecosistemas cafetaleros de Veracruz: biodiversidad, manejo y conservación. Instituto
Nacional de Ecología 161-180, 2008.

García H, Corzo G, Isaacs P, Etter A. Distribution and current status of tropical dry forest biome remnants in Colombia: inputs for its management. In: Pizano C, Garcia H (Eds). The tropical dry forest in Colombia. Alexander Von Humboldt Institute, Bogotá- Colombia, pp 229-251, 2014.
doi: 10.1177/1940082917714229

Goulart FVB, Cáceres NC, Graipel ME, Tortato MA, Ghizoni Jr. IR, Oliveira-Santos LGR. Habitat selection by large mammals in
a southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Mammalian Biology, 74:182- 190, 2009.
doi: 10.1016/j.mambio.2009.02.006

Grigione MM, Beier P, Hopkins RA, Neal D, Padley WD, Schonewald CM, Johnson ML. Ecological and allometric determinants of home-range size for mountain lions (Puma concolor). Animal
Conservation, 5:317-324, 2002.
doi: 10.1017/S1367943002004079

Hernández-Pérez E, Reyna-Hurtado R, Castillo-Vela G, Sanvicente- López M, Moreira-Ramirez JF. Fototrampeo de mamíferos
terrestres de talla mediana y grande asociados a petenes del noroeste de la península de Yucatán, México. Therya, 6(3): 559- 574, 2015.
doi: 10.12933/therya-15-290

Hilty JA, Lidicker WZ, Merelender AM. Corridor ecology— the science and practice of linking landscapes for biodiversity
conservation. Island Press, Washington, DC, 2006.

Hsieh TC, Ma KH, Chao A. iNEXT: Interpolation and EXTrapolation for species diversity. R package version 2.0. 12, 2016.
454 Colombian Caribbean dry forest mammals

Hunter L. Wild cats of the world. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015.

IDEAM-Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales. Actualización del componente meteorológico del
modelo institucional del IDEAM sobre el efecto climático de los fenómenos El Niño y La Niña en Colombia. Bogotá, 2014.

INDERENA Instituto Nacional de los Recursos Naturales Renovables y del Ambiente. Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona:
generalidades: Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona - Santa Marta, Colombia, 1978.

IUCN. The IUCN Red List of Threatened species TM (2012-2020), 2019.

Jacobs J. Quantitative measurement of food selection. Oecologia, 14(4): 413-417, 1974.
doi: 10.1007/BF00384581

Jacobs SM, Bechtold JS, Biggs HC, Grimm NB, Lorentz S, McClain ME, Scholes MC. Nutrient vectors and riparian processing:
a review with special reference to African semiarid savanna ecosystems. Ecosystems, 10(8): 1231-1249, 2007.
doi: 10.1007/s10021-007-9092-1

Janzen DH. Tropical dry forests: the most endangered major ecosystem. In: Wilson EO (ed) Biodiversity. Washington DC:
National Academic press, pp. 130-137, 1988.

Jerozolimski A, Peres CA. Bringing home the biggest bacon: a crosssite analysis of the structure of hunter-kill profiles in Neotropical forests. Biological Conservation, 111(3): 415-425, 2003.
doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00310-5

Jiménez-Alvarado JS, Moreno-Díaz C, Olarte G, Zárrate-Charry D, Vela-Vargas IM, Pineda-Guerrero A, González-Maya JF.
Inventory of flying, medium and large mammals from Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona, Magdalena, Colombia, 2015.
Kelly MJ. Design, evaluate, refine: camera trap studies for elusive species. Animal Conservation, 11(3), 182-184, 2008.
doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2008.00179.x

Lindstedt SL, Miller BJ, Burskirk SW. Home Range, Time, and Body Size in Mammals. Ecology, 67:413-418, 1986.
doi: 10.2307/1938584

Macdonald DW, Loveridge AJ, Nowell K. Dramatis personae: an introduction to the wild felids. Biology and conservation of wild felids, 1: 3-58, 2010.

Mason NWH, Mouillot D, Lee WG, Wilson JB. Functional richness, functional evenness and functional divergence: the primary components of functional diversity. Oikos, 111: 112-118, 2005.
doi: 10.1111/j.0030-1299.2005.13886.x

McNab BK. The influence of food habits on the energetics of eutherian mammals. Ecological Monographs, 56(1): 1-19, 1986.
doi: 10.2307/2937268

Miles L, Newton AC, DeFries, RS, Ravilious C, May I, Blyth S, Gordon JE. A global overview of the conservation status of
tropical dry forests. Journal of Biogeography, 33(3): 491-505, 2006.
doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2005.01424.x

Montenegro JA, Acosta A, Reimer JD. HaviStat© v2.02: Application to estimate preference for habitat and resources. Universitas Scientiarum, 19(3): 333-337, 2014.
doi: 10.11144/Javeriana.SC19-3.haea

Mooney HA, Bullock SH, Medina E. Introduction. In: Bullock SH, Mooney HA, Medina E (eds) Seasonally dry tropical forests.
Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 1-8, 1995.

Morales Jiménez AL, Sánchez F, Poveda K, Cadena A. Mamíferos terrestres y voladores de Colombia: guía de campo (No. Doc. 21579) CO-BAC, Bogotá, 2004.

Murphy PG, Lugo AE. Ecology of tropical dry forest. Annual review of ecology and systematics, 17(1): 67-88, 1986.
doi: 10.1146/

Naeem S, Wright JP. Disentangling biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning: deriving solutions to a seemingly insurmountable problem. Ecology letters, 6(6): 567-579, 2003.
doi: 10.1046/j.1461-0248.2003.00471.x

O'Connell AF, Nichols JD, Karanth KU. Camera traps in animal ecology: methods and analyses. Springer Science & Business Media, 2010.

Payán Garrido E, Soto Vargas C. Los felinos de Colombia (No. Doc. 26068) CO-BAC, Bogotá, 2012.

Pekin BK, Pijanowski BC. Global land use intensity and the endangerment status of mammal species. Diversity and Distributions, 18(9): 909-918, 2012.
doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2012.00928.x

Pennington RT, Lavin M, Oliveira-Filho A. Woody plant diversity, evolution, and ecology in the tropics: perspectives from
seasonally dry tropical forests. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 40: 437-457, 2009.
doi: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.110308.120327

Perault DR, Lomolino MV. Corridors and mammal community structure across a fragmented, old-growth forest landscape.
Ecological Monographs, 70:401-422, 2000.
doi: 10.1890/0012-9615(2000)070[0401:CAMCSA]2.0.CO;2

Pereboom V, Mergey M, Villerette N, Helder R, Gerard JF, Lode T. Movement patterns, habitat selection, and corridor use of
a typical woodland-dweller species, the European pine marten (Maries martes), in fragmented landscape. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 86:983-991, 2008.
doi: 10.1139/Z08-076

Pizano C, García H. El bosque seco tropical en Colombia. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander
Von Humboldt, Bogotá (Colombia). Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible, Bogotá (Colombia), 2014.
Presley SJ. Eira barbara. Mammalian species 636:1-6, 2000.
doi: 10.1644/1545-1410(2000)636<0001:EB>2.0.CO;2

Rabinowitz AT, Nottingham BG. Ecology and behavior of the Jaguar (Panthera-Onca) in Belize, Central-America. Journal of
Zoology, 210:149-159, 1986.
doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.1986.tb03627.x

Ramírez-Barajas PJ, Alava DP, Moreira SE. Parecidos pero no iguales: Ocelote y Tigrillo, ¿Cómo diferenciarlos con foto-capturas? Similar but not the same: ¿How to distinguish ocelot from margay with photographic captures? Revista Nº4/Septiembre, 8, 11, 2014.

Rangel-Ch JO, Carvajal-Cogollo JE. Clima de la región Caribe colombiana. Colombia diversidad biótica xii: la región Caribe de Colombia, 67-129, 2012.

Ripple WJ, Estes JA, Beschta RL, Wilmers CC, Ritchie EG, Hebblewhite M, Berger J, Elmhagen B, Letnic M, Nelson MP,
Schmitz OJ, Smith DW, Wallach AD, Wirsin AJ. Status and ecological effects of the world’s largest carnivores. Science, 343 (6167): 1241484, 2014.
doi: 10.1126/science.1241484

Sala OE, Chapin IFS, Armesto JJ, Berlow E, Bloomfield J, Dirzo R, Huber-Sanwald E, Huenneke LF, Jackson RB, Kinzig A, Leemans R, Lodge DH, Mooney HA, Oesterheld M, Poff, NL, Sykes MT, Walker BH, Walker M, Wall DH. Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science, 287(5459): 1770-1774, 2000.
doi: 10.1126/science.287.5459.1770

Sánchez HG, Mayor G, Gomez C, Corredor P, Puentes M, Muñoz WBM, Franke R. Plan de manejo 2005–2009. Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona. Ministerio de Ambiente Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial. Unidad Administrativa Especial del Sistema de Parques Nacionales Naturales Santa Marta, Magdalena, 2006.

Sánchez-Azofeifa GA, Portillo-Quintero C. Extent and drivers of change of Neotropical seasonally dry tropical forests. In:
Seasonally Dry Tropical forests. Island Press, Washington, DC pp 45-57, 2011.
doi: 10.5822/978-1-61091-021-7_3

Schipper J, Chanson JS, Chiozza F, Cox NA, Hoffmann M, Katariya V, Baillie J. The status of the world's land and marine mammals: diversity, threat, and knowledge. Science, 322(5899): 225-230, 2008.
doi: 10.1126/science.1165115

Shanon C. A mathematical theory of communication. Bell System Technical Journal, 27, 379-623, 1948.
How to Cite
Pineda-Cendales, S. ., Hernández-Rolong, E., & Carvajal-Cogollo, J. E. (2020). Medium and large-sized mammals in dry forests of the Colombian Caribbean. Universitas Scientiarum, 25(3), 435-461.
Biodiversidad / Biodiversity / Biodiversidade