Published Mar 16, 2011


Google Scholar
Search GoogleScholar

Andrés Felipe Rojas-González, PhD

Erika Girón-Gallego, BSc



This work presents a review of the literature about the influence of parameters such as temperature and time reaction, alcohol type, alcohol: fat molar ratio, catalyst type and concentration, mixed intensity, as well as free fatty acid and moisture concentration, on biodiesel production yield in chemical and biological transesterification of animal fats. It was found that the alcohol: fat molar ratio required by animal fat transesterification depends on the fat and the type of catalysis that are used in the process. It was also found that, under atmospheric pressure, the temperature must be below 50 °C in biocatalysis, 80 °C in homogeneous catalysis, and 250 °C in heterogeneous catalysis. Additionally, lipase from P. cepacia bacteria is the most widely used in biocatalysis of animal fats. It was also found that yield for beef tallow is between 50-95% (reaction time: 0.75-3 h); in the case of chicken fat, between 33-99% (0.5-1.5h); for fish oil, between 76-98% (0.17-1.5 h); for duck tallow, between 75-97% (3 h); for sheep tallow, between 90-98% (24 h), and, for pork tallow, 97% (0.3 h).


Diesel fuels, transesterification, oils and fatsCombustibles diésel, transesterificación, aceites y grasas

ALCÁNTARA, R.; AMORES, J.; CANOIRA, L.; FIDALGO, E.; FRANCO, M. J. y NAVARRO, A. Catalytic production of biodiesel from soy-bean oil, used frying oil and tallow. Biomass and Bioenergy. 2000, núm. 18, pp. 515-527.
AMEER, S. D.; RAJA, K. y JEBARAJ, S. A review on biodiesel production, combustion, emissions and performance. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2009, núm. 13, pp. 1628-1634.
ARANDA, A. S.; CANIELAS, L.; ESPINOSA, M.; SHIMITT, F. C.; WEBER, E.; CATALUÑA, V. R.; ALVES, M. R. y BASTOS, C. E. Tallow biodiesel: properties evaluation and consumption tests in a diesel engine. Energy & Fuels. 2008, núm. 22, pp. 1949-1954.
ARMENTA, R. E.; VINATORU, M.; BURJA, A. M.; KRALOVEC, J. A. y BARROW, C. J. Transesterification of fish oil to produce fatty acid ethyl esters using ultrasonic energy. JAOCS. 2007, núm. 84, pp. 1045-1052.
BALAT, M. y BALAT, H. A critical review of bio-diesel as a vehicular fuel. Energy Conversion and Management. 2008, núm. 49, pp. 2727-2741.
BENAVIDES, A.; BENJUMEA, P. y PASHOVA, V. El biodiesel de aceite de higuerilla como combustible alternativo para motores diesel. DYNA. 2007, núm. 74, pp. 141-150.
BENJAPORNKULAPHONG, S.; NGAMCHARUSSRIVICHAI, C. y BUNYAKIAT, K. Al2O3-supported alkali and alkali earth metal oxides for transesterification of palm kernel oil and coconut oil. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2009, núm. 145, pp. 468-474.
BHATTI, H. N.; HANIF, M. A.; QASIM, M. y REHMAN A. Biodiesel production from waste tallow. Fuel. 2008, núm. 87, pp. 2961-2966.
BIELECKI, J. Energy security, pp. is the wolf at the door? The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance. 2002, núm. 42, pp. 235-250.
BO, X.; GUOMIN, X.; LINGFENG, C.; RUIPING, W. y LIJING, G. Transesterification of palm oil with methanol to biodiesel over a KF/Al2O3 heterogeneous base catalyst. Energy & Fuels. 2007, núm. 21, pp. 3109-3112.
CANAKCI, M. The potencial of restaurant waste lipids as biodiesel feedstocks. Bioresource Technology. 2007, núm. 98, pp. 183-190.
CANAKCI, M. y VAN GERPEN, J. A pilot plant to produce biodiesel from high free fatty acid feedstocks. American Society of Agric. Eng. 2003, núm. 46, pp. 945-954.
CERVERÓ, J. M.; COCA, J. y LUQUE, S. Production of biodiesel from vegetable oils. Grasas y Aceites. 2008, núm. 59, pp. 76-83.
CHENG, C. H.; CHEUNG, C. S.; CHAN, T. L.; LEE, S. C.; YAO, C. D. y TSANG, K. S. Comparison of emissions of a direct injection diesel engine operating on biodiesel with emulsified and fumigated methanol. Fuel. 2008, núm. 87, pp. 1870-1879.
CHUNG, K. H.; KIM, J. y LEE, K-Y. Biodiesel production by transesterification of duck tallow with methanol on alkali catalysts. Biomass and Bioenergy. 2009, núm. 33, pp. 155-158.
DEMIRBAS, A. Progress and recent trends in biodiesel fuels. Energy Conversion and Management. 2009, núm. 50, pp. 14-34.
DIAS, J. M.; ALVIM-FERRAZ, C. M. y ALMEIDA, M. F. Production of biodiesel from acid waste lard. Bioresource Technology. 2009, núm. 100, pp. 6355-6361.
DU, W.; LI, W.; SUN, T.; CHEN, X. y LIU, D. Perspectives for biotechnological production of biodiesel and impacts. Apply Microbiology Biotechnology. 2008, núm. 79, pp. 331-337.
EL-MASHAD, H. M.; ZHANG, R. y AVENA-BUSTILLOS, R. J. A two-step process for biodiesel production from salmon oil. Biosystems Engineering. 2008, núm. 99, pp. 220-227.
ESPINOSA, M.; KRAUSE, L. C.; ARANDA, M. S.; SCHMITT, C.; ASSIS, R.; RODRIGUES, S.; ALVES, M. R. y BASTOS, E. Beef tallow biodiesel produced in a pilot scale. Fuel Processing Technology. 2009, núm. 90, pp. 570-575.
FUKUDA, H.; KONDO, A. y NODA, H. Biodiesel fuel production by transesterification of oils. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 2001, núm. 92, pp. 405-416.
HSU, A-F.; JONES, K.; MARMER, W. N. y FOGLIA, T. A. Production of alkyl esters from tallow and grease using lipase immobilized in a phyllosilicate sol-gel. JAOCS. 2001, núm. 78, pp. 585-588.
ISSARIYAKUL, T.; KULKARNI, M. G.; DALAI, A. K. y BAKHSHI, A. N. Production of biodiesel from waste fryer grease using mixed methanol/ethanol system. Fuel Processing Technology. 2007, núm. 88, pp. 429-436.
JEONG, G.-T.; YANG, H.-S. y PARK, D.-H. Optimization of transesterification of animal fat ester using response surface methodology. Bioresource Technology. 2009, núm. 100, pp. 421-427.
KIM, H.-J.; KANG, B.-S.; KIM, M.-J.; PARK, Y. M.; KIM, D. K.; LEE, S.-J. y LEE, K.-Y. Transesterification of vegetable oil to biodiesel using heterogeneous base catalyst. Catalysis Today. 2004, núm. 93, pp. 315-320.
LECLERCQ, E.; FINIELS, A. y MOREAU, C. Transesterification of rapeseed oil in the presence of basic zeolites and related solid catalysts. JAOCS. 2001, núm. 8, pp. 1161-1165.
LEUNG, D. Y. C. y GUO, Y. Transesterification of neat and used frying oil, pp. Optimization for biodiesel production. Fuel Processing Technology. 2006, núm. 87, pp. 883-890.
LIU, X.; PIAO, X.; WANG, Y.; ZHU, S. y HE, H. Calcium methoxide as a solid catalyst for the transesterification soybean oil to biodiesel with methanol. Fuel. 2008, núm. 87, pp. 1076-1082.
LIU, Y.; LOTERO, E.; GOODWIN, J.G. Transesterification of poultry fat with methanol using Mg-Al hydrotalcite derived catalyst. Apply Catalysis A. General. 2007, 331, pp. 138-148.
LU, J.; NIE, K.; XIE, F. y WANG, F. Enzymatic synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters from lard with immobilized Candida sp. 99-125. Process Biochemistry. 2007, núm. 42, pp. 1367-1370.
MA, F.; CLEMENTS, L. D. y HANNA, M. A. Biodiesel fuel from animal fat. Ancillary studies on transesterification of beef tallow. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 1998a, núm. 37, pp. 3768-3771.
MA, F.; CLEMENTS, L. D. y HANNA, M. A. The effects of catalyst, free fatty acids, and water on transesterification of beef tallow. Transactions of the ASAE. 1998b, núm. 41, pp. 1261-1264.
MA, F.; CLEMENTS, L. D. y HANNA, M. A. The effect of mixing on transesterification of beef tallow. Bioresource Technology. 1999, núm. 69, pp. 289-293.
MA, H.; LI, S.; WANG, B.; WANG, R. y TIAN, S. Transesterification of rapeseed oil for synthesizing biodiesel by K/KOH/γ-Al2O3 as heterogeneous base catalyst. JAOCS. 2008, núm. 85, pp. 263-270.
MEHER, L. C.; SAGAR, D. V. y NAIK. S. N. Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transesterification - a review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy. 2006, núm. 10, pp. 248-268.
MITTELBACH, M. Lipase catalyzed alcoholysis of sunflower oil. JAOCS. 1990, núm. 67, pp. 168-170.
MUNIYAPPA, P. R.; BRAMMER, S. C. y; NOUREDDINI, H. Improved conversion of plant oils and animal fats into biodiesel and co-product. Bioresource Technology. 1996, núm. 56, pp. 19-24.
NGO, H. L.; ZAFIROPOULOS, N. A.; FOGLIA, T. A.; SAMULSKI, E. T. y LIN, W. Efficient two-step systhesis of biodiesel from greases. Energy & Fuels. 2008, núm. 22, pp. 626-634.
NITSKE, W. R. y WILSON, C. M. Rudolf Diesel: pioneer of the age of power. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1965.
PERIN, G.; ÁLVARO, G.; WESTPHAL, E.; VIANA, L. H. y LENARDAO, E. J. Transesterification of castor oil assited by microwave irradiation. Fuel. 2008, núm. 87, pp. 2838-2841.
ROJAS, A. F.; GIRÓN, E. y TORRES, H. G. Variables de operación en el proceso de transesterificación de aceites vegetales: una revisión-catálisis enzimática. Ingeniería e Investigación. 2010, vol. 30, núm. 1, pp. 17-21.
SCHUCHARDT, U.; SERCHELI, R. y VARGAS, R. M. Transesterification of vegetable oils: a review. Journal Brazilian Chememical Society. 1998, núm. 9, pp. 199-210.
SHARMA, Y. C. y SINGH, B. Development of biodiesel: current scenario. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2009, núm. 13, pp. 1646-1651.
SHARMA, Y. C.; SINGH, B. y UPADHYAY, S. N. Advancements in development and characterization of biodiesel: a review. Fuel. 2008, núm. 87, pp. 2355-2373.
SHIMADA, Y.; WATANABE, Y.; SUGIHARA, A. y TOMINAGA, A. Enzymatic alcoholysis for biodiesel fuel production and application of the reaction to oil processing: Review. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic. 2002, núm. 17, pp. 133-142.
SUPPES, G. J.; BOCKWINKEL, K.; LUCAS, S.; BOTTS, J. B. y MASON, M.H. Calcium carbonate catalyzed alcoholysis of fats and oils. JAOCS. 2001, vol. 78, núm. 2, pp. 139-146.
TAMALAMPUDI, S.; TALUKDER, R. M.; HAMA, S.; NUMATA, T.; KONDO, A. y FUKUDA, H. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from jatropha oil: A comparative study of immobilized-whole cell and commercial lipases as a biocatalyst. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 2008, núm. 39, pp. 185-189.
TAN, R.; CULABA, A. B. y PURVIS, M. R. Carbon balance implications of coconut biodiesel utilization in the Philippine automotive transport sector. Biomass & Bioenergy. 2004, núm. 26, pp. 579-585.
TASHTOUSH, G. M.; AL-WIDYAN, M. I. y AL-JARRAH, M. M. Experimental study on evaluation and optimization of conversion of waste animal fat into biodiesel. Energy Conversion and Management. 2004, núm. 45, pp. 2697-2711.
WATANABE, Y.; SHIMADA, Y.; SUGIHARA, A. y TOMINAGA, Y. Stepwise ethanolysis of tuna oil using immobilized. Journal of Bioscience and Bioenergy. 1999, núm. 88, pp. 622-626.
WYATT, V. T.; HESS, M. A.; DUNN, R. O.; FOGLIA, T. A.; HAAS, M. J. y MARMER, W. N. Fuel properties and nitrogen oxide emission levels of biodiesel produced from animal fat. JAOCS. 2005, vol. 82, núm. 8, pp. 585-591.
How to Cite
Rojas-González, A. F., & Girón-Gallego, E. (2011). Operation variables in the animal-fat transesterification process: a review. Ingenieria Y Universidad, 15(1), 197–218.