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John Harold Estrada Montoya

Diego Alejandro Ramírez Rojas

Resumen

Objetivo: identificar los indicadores epidemiológicos de manifestaciones orales asociadas con la infección por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en la etapa de expansión terapéutica antirretroviral. Métodos: se revisó literatura en las bases bibliográficas disponibles en la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Se utilizó un proceso de revisión con base en la evidencia. Cumplieron los criterios de inclusión 52 artículos publicados entre 2000 y 2010. Resultados: después de la introducción de tratamiento antirretroviral de gran actividad, los estudios proveen evidencia consistente en cuanto a: 1) menor prevalencia, gravedad o extensión de candidosis oral, leucoplasia vellosa y enfermedad periodontal asociada al VIH; 2) decremento global, aunque todavía prevalencia alta de sarcoma de Kaposi en África y Latinoamérica, quizás por desigual distribución geográfica del herpesvirus humano 8, y 3) incremento en verrugas orales y úlceras asociadas a los antirretrovirales. Conclusiones: este artículo de reflexión respalda el beneficio de la ampliación de los regímenes de antirretrovirales en todo el mundo y una importante reducción de las manifestaciones orales asociadas al VIH aunque un menor descenso en los países pobres. Los retos para la odontología están en identificar y tratar adecuadamente a las personas VIH+ especialmente en países con recursos limitados.  Objective: To identify epidemiological indicators of oral manifestations associated to HIV/AIDS. Methods: This is an evidence-based review of literature carried out using the bibliographic databases available at the National University of Colombia. Fifty two articles published between 2000 and 2010 met the inclusion criteria. Results: After the introduction of the high activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART), studies provide consistent evidence of: (1) lesser prevalence, severity, or extent of oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia and HIV-related periodontal disease; (2) global decrease but nevertheless high prevalence of Kaposi´s sarcoma in Africa and Latin America due to the unequal geographical distribution of human herpesvirus 8; and (3) increases in oral warts and antiretroviral-related (ARV) ulcers. Conclusions: The reports reviewed provide evidence of the benefits of scaling-up ART/HAART regimens worldwide and an important reduction of oral manifestations associated to HIV-infection (except oral warts and ARV-related ulcers), although in a lesser degree in the underdeveloped countries. Challenges lie in the role of oral health care workers in identifying patients who are HIV-positive and in effectively managing their oral and systemic conditions, particularly in resource-poor settings. 

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Keywords
References
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Cómo citar
Estrada Montoya, J., & Ramírez Rojas, D. (2015). Manifestaciones orales asociadas a la infección por el VIH/sida en la etapa de expansión de la terapéutica antirretroviral: una década en revisión (2000-2010) / Oral Manifestations Associated to HIV Infection under ART/HAART: Review of a Decade 2000-2010. Universitas Odontologica, 33(71), 175-189. https://doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.uo33-71.moai
Sección
Salud Pública y Epidemiología Oral