Publicado Oct 29, 2013



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Esperanza Holguín Hernández

Gisella Patricia Bernal González

Álvaro Santiago Sánchez Pinilla

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Resumen

Introducción: Más del 50 % de los fármacos se prescriben, dispensan o venden de forma inadecuada, lo que expone a los pacientes a riesgos innecesarios y favorece la aparición de infecciones del sitio operatorio (ISO) como una de las complicaciones más comunes en cirugía oral. La pertinente prescripción de antibióticos sistémicos ayuda a disminuir el riesgo de ISO. Objetivo: Evaluar la pertinencia de la prescripción de antibióticos en la prevención de la infección del sitio operatorio, según la información registrada en la historia clínica de los pacientes a quienes se les realizaron exodoncias método cerrado, exodoncias método abierto y biopsias de tejidos blandos, en el Hospital Barrios Unidos-Méderi, servicio de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial. Métodos: De una población de 600 historias clínicas de pacientes que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión se calculó una muestra de 234 historias clínicas. Se registró la información demográfica, prescripción, morbilidad y factores de riesgo de presentación de ISO. Resultados: La pertinencia de prescripción o no de profilaxis antibiótica en los procedimientos estudiados fue del 10,26 %, lo que muestra que no se tiene en cuenta la indicación para realizarla. La proporción de presentación de ISO fue del 4,7 %, lo que coincide con lo reportado en la literatura. Conclusión: El abuso de antibióticos con indicaciones injustificadas lleva al favorecimiento de efectos adversos, ya que se manejan esquemas para el manejo de procesos infecciosos instaurados y no de un esquema profiláctico, como sugiere la literatura.

 

Background: More than 50 % of all drugs are prescribed, discharged, or sold wrongly, which exposes patients to unnecessary risks and favors the development of Surgical Site Infection (SSI) that is one of the most common complications in oral surgery. Adequate systemic antibiotic prescription helps to reduce the risk of SSI. Objective: Evaluate the pertinence of antibiotic prescription to prevent SSI by using the information registered on the medical records of patients who underwent dental extractions, surgical extractions, and soft tissue biopsies at the Oral and Maxillofacial Unit from the Barrios Unidos Hospital-Mederi. Method: From a population of 600 medical records, a sample of 234 medical records of patients who fulfill the inclusion criteria was calculated. Information about demographics, prescription, morbidity, and risk factors to develop SSI data was recorded. Results: Pertinence of antibiotics prescribed in relation to the studied procedures was of 10.26 %, considering that its indication is not taken into account. The proportion of SSI was of 4.7 %, which is similar to other reports. Conclusions: Abuse in antibiotic prescription with unjustified indications could prompt adverse effects because it focuses on already existing infectious processes and not on preventing them as it is recommended in the literature.

Keywords
References
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Cómo citar
Holguín Hernández, E., Bernal González, G. P., & Sánchez Pinilla, Álvaro S. (2013). Pertinencia de la prescripción de antibióticos en la prevención de infección del sitio operatorio en cirugía oral / Appropriateness of Antibiotic Prescription to Prevent Site Infection in Oral Surgery. Universitas Odontologica, 32(69), 169–178. Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.javeriana.edu.co/index.php/revUnivOdontologica/article/view/SICI%3A%202027-3444%28201307%2932%3A69%3C169%3APPAPIS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M
Sección
Práctica Clínica