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Sandra Amado Garzon https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7756-1805

Sebastián Moreno Mercado https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4385-5063

Samuel Martínez Vernaza https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5363-5729

Javier Iván Lasso https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3061-5212

Andres Laserna https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2071-3142

Resumen

Los dos tipos de manifestación clínica de la tuberculosis (TB) son la pulmonar y la extrapulmonar siendo la primera la más frecuente. No obstante, si bien se ha logrado disminuir la prevalencia en general, las cifras de la tuberculosis extrapulmonar (TBEP) se mantienen estables; se notificaron 896.000 casos nuevos en el mundo en 2017. Por lo general, se presenta por diseminación hematógena o linfática del bacilo del complejo Mycobacterium tuberculosis a otros órganos. Los sitios de compromiso más frecuentes son pleural, ganglionar, tracto gastrointestinal y osteoarticular. Otros menos habituales son el sistema nervioso central, piel, tracto genitourinario y vías aéreas superiores.
Las manifestaciones clínicas de la TBEP son variables por su naturaleza paucibacilar y constituye un verdadero reto para los clínicos. La aproximación diagnóstica depende del sitio de compromiso, la facilidad de toma de la muestra, la sensibilidad de las pruebas y la distribución de la micobacteria en el tejido. La enfermedad usualmente responde al tratamiento estándar para TB y el tiempo ideal del régimen varía según el sitio afectado. El propósito de esta revisión es describir la presentación clínica y el proceso diagnóstico de la TBEP.
 
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Keywords

Tuberculosis, extrapulmonar, pleural, osteoarticular, pericárdica

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Cómo citar
Amado Garzon, S., Moreno Mercado, S., Martínez Vernaza, S., Lasso, J., & Laserna, A. (2020). Tuberculosis extrapulmonar, un reto clínico vigente. Universitas Médica, 61(4). https://doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.umed61-4.reto
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