A key requirement for materializing the Semantic Web involves the annotation of resources and Web services with semantic metadata. This procedure is traditionally addressed as a manual task, which involves a high consumption of time and resources as well as the expertise on description formats and formal representations of knowledge, such as ontologies. Some research has promoted the development of mechanisms that partially automate the semantic annotation procedure, however, for the services particular case, those works lack of an analysis of the linguistic context of descriptor documents or interfaces, which provide adequate assignment of semantic annotations on the functional attributes of the services. In this context, this paper introduces a mechanism to automate the semantic annotation of SOAP services, supported by Word Sense Disambiguation techniques (WSD), from which it is possible to link the context of descriptor documents to the procedure of identification and association of ontological entities related to service attributes. This document discusses the mechanism described above, by developing an example, as well as the results of the experimental evaluation performed on a prototype that implements the proposal.
Servicios Web, Anotación Semántica, Ontologías, Desambiguación del sentido de las Palabras (WSD)Web Services, Semantic Annotation, Ontologies, Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD)
ASSWAD, M.; DE CESARE, S. de and LYCETT, M. A query-based approach for semi-automatic annotation of web services. International Journal of Information Systems and Social Change (IJISSC). 2011, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 37-54.
BLAKEMAN, J. Benchmarking: definitions and overview [document on line]. 2002.
BOUCHIHA, D. and MALKI, M. Semantic annotation of web services. n. d: Sidi Bel Abbes, 2012.
CARDOSO, J.; MILLER, A. and EMANI, S. Web services discovery utilizing semantically annotated WSDL. Resoning Web. Venecia: Springer, 2008. pp. 240-268.
CHABEB, Y.; TATA, S. and BELAÏD, D. Toward an integrated ontology for Web services. Fourth International Conference on Internet and Web Applications and Services, 2009. ICIW‘09. 2009, pp. 462-467.
CHRISTENSEN, E. et al. Web service description languaje [document on line]. 2001.
DENTLER, K. et al. Comparison of reasoners for large ontologies in the OWL 2 EL profile. s. d.: IOS Press, 2011.
FALLERI, J. et al. Automatic tag identification in web service descriptions [document on line]. 2010. < http://www-sop.inria.fr/members/Zeina.Azmeh/webist10.pdf>.
FARRELL, J. and LAUSEN, H. Semantic annotations for WSDL and XML schema [document on line]. 2007.
GOOGLE. 2012. Custom search [document on line]. 2012.
JIE, G. et al. Applying recommender system based mashup to web-telecom hybrid service creation. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2009, pp. 3321-3325.
KHALID, E.; AHMED, H. and PATRICK, M. Clustering WSDL documents to bootstrap the Discovery of web services. Washington: IEEE Computer Society, 2010, pp. 147-154.
LEWANDOWSKI, D. The retrieval effectiveness of search engines on navigational queries. Aslib Journal of Information Managemet. 2010, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 354-363.
LEWIS, D. Representation and learning in information retrieval. Boston: University of Massachusetts, 1992.
LY, P.; PEDRINACI, C. and DOMINGUE, J. Automated information extraction from web APIs documentation. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2012.
MICHELIZZI, J. and PEDERSEN, T. WordNet-SenseRelate-WordToSet [document on line]. 2008. http://search.cpan.org/dist/WordNet-SenseRelate-WordToSet/doc/README.pod [Cited: 12-13-2012].
MILLER, G. WordNet: a lexical database for English. Communications of the ACM. 1995, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 39-41.
OSMAN, T.; THAKKER, D. and AL-DABASS, D. S-CBR: semantic case based reasoner for web services discovery and matchmaking. IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS 2006). 2006. Chicago, 18-22 september. IEEE Computer Society. 2006, pp. 29-36.
PARSIA, B.; SIRIN, E. and KALYANPUR, A. Debugging OWL ontologies. s. l.: ACM, 2005.
PEDERSEN, T. and KOLHATKAR, V. WordNet: Sense relate: allwords - a broad coverage Word sense tagger that maximizes semantic relatedness. Human Language Technologies: Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association of Computational Linguistics. Colorado, May 31-June 5, 2009: The Association for Computational Linguistics, 2009, pp. 17-20.
PEDERSEN, T.; BANERJEE, S. and PATWARDHAN, S. Maximizing semantic relatedness to perform word sense disambiguation. Minnesota Supercomputing Institute Users Bulletin. 2005, vol. 2, no. 1.
PEDERSEN, T.; PATWARDHAN, S. and MICHELIZZI, J. WordNet: Similarity - Measuring the Relatedness of Concepts. s. l.: AAAI Press/The MIT Press, 2004.
SIRIN, E. et al. Pellet: A practical OWL-DL reasoner. Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web. 2008, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 51-53.
SMITH, K. OneAPI: A standard to simplify cross-network development. n. d., 2009.
VERMA, K. et al. METEOR-S WSDI: A Scalable P2P infrastructure of registries for semantic publication and discovery of web services. Journal of Information Technology and Management. 2005, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 17-39.
W3C. Semantic annotations for WSDL working group. SAWSDL Recommendation. [document on line]. 2007a.
W3C. Web services description language (WSDL) Version 2.0 Part 0: Primer [document on line]. 2007b.
WU, Z. and PALMER, M. Verb semantics and lexical selection. 32nd. Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics. Las Cruces, New Mexico, 27 de Junio- 30 de Junio 1994 : Association for Computational Linguistics, 1994, pp. 133-138.
YATSKEVICH, M. Preliminary evaluation of schema matching systems. Trento: University of Trento, 2003.