Publicado Dec 15, 2021



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Claudio Rojas-Jara

Roberto Polanco-Carrasco

Tomás Caycho-Rodríguez

Rocío Acuña-Espinoza

Camila González-Serrano

Paula Roa-Méndez

Aníbal Rojas-Román

María Alfonsina Sepúlveda-López

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Resumen

El objetivo de este estudio es la revisión de la evidencia actual sobre la relación entre la vivencia de experiencias adversas en la infancia y el posterior uso de drogas en la adolescencia y adultez, y sus características. La metodología utilizada fue una revisión sistemática de publicaciones científicas, entre el periodo 2013-2017, disponibles en la base de datos Scopus sobre experiencias adversas en la infancia y el uso de drogas en la adolescencia y adultez que arrojó un total de 69 publicaciones incluidas en el estudio. Las experiencias adversas en la infancia presentan una elevada relación con el uso y/o abuso de drogas en la adolescencia y adultez. El consumo de drogas en adolescentes y adultos expuestos a experiencias traumáticas en la infancia se da principalmente en hombres. Las drogas mayormente usadas son alcohol, tabaco, cannabis y fármacos no recetados y, en menor medida, opioides, cocaína y anfetaminas. Las drogas, en este sentido, cumplen el rol de barrera química para distanciar el dolor emocional que deriva del recuerdo de las experiencias traumáticas y su intensa carga psíquica. Se requieren acciones de promoción del buen trato en la infancia, así como el abordaje terapéutico temprano de niños expuestos a experiencias traumáticas.

Keywords

adverse childhood experiences, childhood abuse, drug abuse, substance abuseexperiencias adversas en la infancia, abuso infantil, abuso de drogas, abuso de sustancias

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Rojas-Jara, C., Polanco-Carrasco, R., Caycho-Rodríguez, T., Acuña-Espinoza, R., González-Serrano, C., Roa-Méndez, P., Rojas-Román, A., & Sepúlveda-López, M. A. . (2021). Experiencias adversas en la infancia y el uso de drogas en la adolescencia y adultez: un análisis de la evidencia. Universitas Psychologica, 20, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.upsy20.eaiu
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