Publicado Jun 24, 2014



PLUMX
Almetrics
 
Dimensions
 

Google Scholar
 
Search GoogleScholar
Descargas


Max Méndez-López

Stanley Grant-Villegas

Andre Romero-Polini

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Resumen

El tromboembolismo venoso es una causa de morbilidad y mortalidad importante en todo el mundo. El manejo adecuado de los pacientes anticoagulados es fundamental en su evolución. El establecimiento de clínicas de anticoagulación ha demostrado reducir complicaciones y mejorar el manejo de los pacientes que reciben esta terapia cuando se toman decisiones basadas en la evidencia. La presente revisión pretende plantear una guía para facilitar las decisiones, estratificando pacientes según el riesgo de sangrado utilizando escalas previamente validadas para el manejo de pacientes con problemas trombóticos.

Keywords

thrombosis, venous thromboembolism, blood coagulation, warfarin, heparin, tromboembolismo venoso, coagulación sanguínea, warfarina, heparina,

References
1. Cushman M. epidemiology and risk factors for venous thrombosis. Semin Hematol. 2007;44(2):62-9.
2. Ashrani A, Heit J. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism. En: Venous thromboembolism in advanced disease. 3rd ed. s. l.: Facts & Comparisons; 2009.
3. Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos (Costa Rica). Egresos hospitalarios 1970-2002: consulta a censos y grandes bases de datos [internet]. [Citado 2012 feb 2]. Disponible en http://www.inec.go.cr.
4. Ageno W, Gallus AS, Wittkowsky A, Crowther M, Hylek E, Palareti G. Oral antociagulant therapy: Antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis. 9th ed.: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012;141(2 suppl):e44s-e88s.
5. Cannegieter SC, Rosendaal FR, Wintzen AR, van der Meer FJ, Vandenbrouke JP, Briët E. Optimal oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with mechanical heart valves. N Engl J Med. 1995;333(1):11-7.
6. Beyth RJ, Quinn LM, Landefeld CS. Prospective evaluation of an index for predicting the risk of major bleeding in outpatients treated with warfarin. Am J Med. 1998;105(2):91-9.
7. Gadisseur AP, Breukink-Engbers WG, van der Meer FJ, van den Besselaar AM, Sturk A, Rosendaal FR. Comparison of the quality of oral anticoagulant therapy through patient self-management and management by specialized anticoagulation clinics in the Netherlands: A randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163(21):2639-46.
8. Willey VJ, Bullano MF, Hauch O, Reynolds M, Wygant G, Hoffman M, et al. Management patterns and outcomes of patients with venous thromboembolism in the usual community practice setting. Clin Ther. 2004;26(7):1149-59.
9. V eeger NJ, Piersma-Wichers M, Tijssen JG, Hillege HL, van del Meer J. Individual time within target range in patients treated with vitamin K antagonists: Main determinant of quality of anticoagulation and predictor of clinical outcome. A retrospective study of 2300 consecutive patients with venous thromboembolism. Brit J Haematol. 2005;128(4):513-9.
10. Undas A. Fibrin clot properties and their modulation in thrombotic disorders. Thromb Haemost. 2014;112:32-42.
11. Stormorken H. The discovery of factor V: a tricky clotting factor. J Thromb Haemost. 2003;1:206-13.
12. Macfarlane RG. An enzyme cascade in the blood clotting mechanism, and its function as a biochemical amplifier. Nature. 1964;202:498-9.
13. D avie EW, Ratnoff OD. Waterfall sequence for intrinsic blood clotting. Science. 1964;145:1310-2.
14. Osterud B, Rapaport SI. Activation of factor IX by the reaction product of tissue factor and factor VII: Additional pathway for initiating blood coagulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1977;74:5260-64.
15. Hoffman M, Monroe D. A cell based model of hemostasis. Thromb Haemost. 2001;85:958-65.
16. Hoffman M, Monroe D. Coagulation 2006: A modern view of hemostasis. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2007; 21(1):1-11.
17. Renné T, Pozgajová M, Grüner S, Schuh K, Pauer HU, Burfeind P, et al. Defective thrombus formation in mice lacking coagulation factor XII. J Exp Med. 2005;202(2):271-81.
18. Konings J, Govers-Riemslag JW, Phillippou H, Mutch N, Borissoff J, Allan P, et al. Factor XIIa regulates the structure of the fibrin clot independently of thrombin generation through direct interaction with fibrin. Blood. 2011;118(14):3942-51.
19. Müller F, Renne T. Novel roles for factor FXII-driven plasma contact activation system. Curr Opin Hematol. 2008;15(5):516-21.
20. Maas C, Oschartz C, Renne T. The plasma contact system 2.0. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2011;37:375-81.
21. Müller F, Mutch NJ, Schenk WA, et al. Platelet polyphosphates are proinflammatory and procoagulant mediators in vivo. Cell. 2009;139(6):1143-56.
22. Leeb-Lundberg LM, Marceau F, Muller-Esterl W, Pettibone DJ, Zuraw BL. Classification of the kinin receptor family: From molecular mechanisms to pathophysiological consequences. Pharmacol Rev. 2005;57:27-77.
23. Ratnoff OD, Busse RJ, Sheon RP. The demise of John Hageman. N Engl J Med. 1968;279:760-1.
24. Cushman M, O’Meara ES, Folsom AR, Heckbert SR. Coagulation factors IX through XIII and the risk of future venous thrombosis: The longitudinal investigation of thromboembolism etiology. Blood. 2009;114(14):2878-83.
25. Girolami A, Randi ML, Gavasso S, Lombardi AM, Spiezia F. The occasional venous thrombosis seen in patients with severe (homozygous) FXII deficiency are probably due to associated risk factors:a study of prevalence in 21 patients and review of the literature. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2004;17(2):139-43.
26. Halbmayer WM, Haushofer A, Schön R, Mannhalter C, Strohmer E, Baumgarten K, et al. The prevalence of moderate and severe FXII (Hageman factor) deficiency among the normal population:evaluation of the incidence of FXII deficiency among 300 healthy blood donors. Thromb Haemost. 1994;71(1):68-72.
27. Henschen A, Lottspeich F, Kehl M, Southan C. Covalent structure of fibrinogen. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1983;408:28-43. 28. Ariens R. Fibrin(ogen) and thrombotic disease. J Thromb Haemost. 2013;11(Suppl 1):294-305.
29. Machlus KR, Cardenas JC, Church FC, Wolberg AS. Causal relationship between hyperfibrinogenemia, thrombosis and resistance to thrombolysis in mice. Blood. 2011;117:4953-63.
30. D e Moerloose P, Cassani A, Neerman-Arbez M. Congenital fibrinogen disorders: an update. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2013;39:585-95.
31. N i H, Denis CV, Subbarao S, Degen JL, Sato TN, Hynes RO, et al. Persistence of platelet thrombus formation in arterioles of mice lacking both von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen. J Clin Invest. 2000;106:385-92.
32. Ansell J, Oertel L, Wittkowsky A. Managing oral anticoagulation therapy: clinical and operational guidelines. 3rd ed. Wolkers Kluwer: Facts & Comparisons; 2009.
33. Shireman TI, Mahnken JD, Howard PA, Kresowik TF, Hou Q, Ellerbeck EF. Development of a contemporary bleeding risk model for elderly warfarin recipients. Chest. 2006;130(5):1390-6.
34. Poli D, Antonucci E, Testa S, Tosetto A, Ageno W, Palareti G. Bleeding risk in very old patients on vitamin K antagonist treatment: results of a prospective collaborative study on elderly patients followed by Italian centres for anticoagulation. Circulation. 2011;124:824-9.
35. Eckman MH, Levine HJ, Salem DN , Pauker SG. Making decisions about antithrombotic therapy in heart disease: decision analytic and cost-effectiveness issues. Chest. 1998;114:699S-714S.
36. N ational Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Important food and drug information [internet]; 2010 [citado 2014 may 1]. Disponible en: http://www.cc.nih.gov/ccc/patient_education/drug_nutrient/coumadin1.pdf.
37. Shulman S. Bleeding and other adverse effects with anticoagulation therapy. En: Ansell J, Oertel L, Wittkowsky A, editors. Managing oral anticoagulation therapy: clinical and operational guidelines. 3rd ed. Wolters Kluwer: Facts & Comparisons; 2009. p. 193-203.
38. Levine M, Raskob G, Landefeld S, Kearon C. Hemorrhagic complications of anticoagulant treatment. Chest. 2001;119:108S-21S.
39. Lee A, Levine M, Baker R, Bowden C, Kakkar A, Prins M, et al. Low-molecularweight heparin versus a coumarin for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:146-53.
40. Keeling D, Baglin T, Tait C, Watson H, Perry D, Baglin C, et al. British Committe for Standards in Haematology: Guidelines on oral anticoagulation with warfarin-fourth edition. Br J Haematol, 2011;154(3):311-24.
41. Garcia DA, Regan S, Crowther M, Hyleck EM. The risk of hemorrhage among patients with warfarin-associated coagulopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47(4):804-8.
42. Crowther MA, Ageno W, Garcia D. Effectiveness of low oral vitamin K for patients with elevated INR values:Results of non-randomized trial examining clinical outcomes. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;(5 suppl):P-S-219.
43. Schulman S, Beyth RJ, Kearon C, Levne M. Hemorrhagic complications of anticoagulant and thrombolytic treatment. American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th edition). Chest. 2008;133:257S-98S.
44. Kaganzky N, Knobler H, Rimon E, Ozer Z, Levy S. Safety of anticoagulation therapy in well-informed older patients. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(18):2044-50.
45. Tom M, Bollen W, van der Meer F, van der Wall E, Rosendaal F. Risks of oral anticoagulant therapy with increasing age. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:1527-32.
46. Fang M, Go A, Hylek E, Chang Y, Henault L, Jensvold N, Singer D. Age and the risk of warfarin-associated hemorrhage: The anticoagulation and risk factors in atrial fibrillation study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54:1231-6.
47. Pisters R, Lane D, Nieuwlaat R, de Vos C, Crijns H, Lip G. A novel user-friendly score (HAS-BLED) to assess 1-year risk of major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation. Chest. 2010;138(5):1093-100.
48. Willey VJ, Bullano MF, Hauch O, Reynolds M, Wygant G, Hoffman M, et al. Management patterns and outcomes of patients with venous thromboembolism in the usual community practice setting. Clin Ther. 2004;26(7):1149-59.
49. Kuijer PM, Hutten BA, Prins MH, Buller HR. Prediction of the risk of bleeding during anticoagulant treatment for venous thromboembolism. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(5):457-60.
50. D ahri K, Loewen P. The risk of bleeding with warfarin: a systematic review and performance analysis of clinical prediction rules. Thromb Haemost. 2007;98(5):980-7.
51. Loewen P, Dahri K. Risk of bleeding with oral anticoagulants: An updated systematic review and performance analysis of clinical prediction rules. Ann Hematol. 2011;90(10):1191-1200.
52. Wells PS, Anderson DR, Rodger M, Forgie M, Kearon C Dreyer J, et al. Evaluation of D-dimer in the diagnosis of suspected deep venous thrombosis. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:1227-35.
53. N ieto JA, Solano R, Ruiz-Ribo, Ruiz-Giménez N, Prandoni P, Kearon C, Monreal M for the RIETE Investigators. Fatal bleeding in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy for venous thromboembolism: findings from the RIETE registry. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8:1216-22.
54. Chen WT, White M, Kluger P, Ashaye A, Sobieraj D, Makanji S, et al. Are risk factors listed in warfarin prescribing information associated with anticoagulation-related bleeding?: A systematic literature review. Int J Clin Pract. 2011;65:719-21.
55. Palaretti G, Cosmi B. Bleeding with anticoagulation therapy - who is at risk, and how best to identify such patients. Thromb Haemost. 2009;102:268-78.
56. Kovacs MJ, Rodger M, Anderson DR, Morrow B, Kells G, Kovacs J, Boyle E, Wells PS. Comparison of 10-mg and 5-mg warfarin initiation nomograms together with low-molecular weight heparin for outpatient treatment of acute venous thromboembolism. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138:714-9.
57. Witt D, Delate T, Clark N, Martell C, Tran T, Crowter M, et al. Outcomes and predictors of very stable control during chronic anticoagulation therapy. Blood. 2009;114:952-6.
Cómo citar
Méndez-López, M., Grant-Villegas, S., & Romero-Polini, A. (2014). Anticoagulación estratificada por riesgos. Universitas Medica, 55(4), 390–406. https://doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.umed55-4.aeri
Sección
Artículos de revisión