Publicado Jun 25, 2015



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Silvia Barrientos Sánchez

Fátima Stella Serna Varona

Hugo Díez Ortega

Adriana Rodríguez Ciódaro

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Resumen

Antecedentes: El desarrollo de resistencia a los antimicrobianos es un fenómeno natural que los microrganismos desarrollan ante la presión selectiva, entre los cuales se encuentra la exposición a antibióticos. Este acontecimiento lleva a la ineficacia de los tratamientos con antibióticos convencionales. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia en la boca de cepas de Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) resistentes a la amoxicilina en individuos con tratamiento previo y sin esta con antibióticos β-lactámicos. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional analítico para el que se aislaron cepas de S. mutans de cavidad oral en 200 individuos sin antecedentes sistémicos y sin historia de terapia antibiótica reciente, 100 personas con tratamiento antibiótico profiláctico por alto riesgo de endocarditis infecciosa y 110 pacientes bajo tratamiento con antibióticos β-lactámicos durante más de tres semanas. Se observó la sensibilidad a amoxicilina con la técnica de Kirby-Bauer. Resultados: Se encontró que del total de individuos, 4,4 % eran portadores de cepas resistentes a amoxicilina: 2,2 % del grupo I y 2,2 % del grupo II. El análisis en los individuos en los que se aisló S. mutans (82 % del grupo I y 60 % del grupo II) mostró que los porcentajes de individuos portadores subieron a 5,5 % en el grupo I y 7,1 % en el grupo II. Conclusiones: El tratamiento con antibióticos β-lactámicos continúa siendo efectivo para la mayoría de las infecciones orales y para profilaxis de endocarditis infecciosa, aunque su uso modifica los ecosistemas orales y disminuye la recuperación de S. mutans en la cavidad oral.

Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a natural phenomenon that microorganisms develop under selective pressures like exposure to antibiotics. This yields conventional antibiotic treatments ineffective. Purpose: To determine the frequency of amoxicillin-resistant Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in the mouth of individuals with and without previous treatment with β-lactam antibiotics. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed, isolating S. mutans strains from the mouth of 200 healthy individuals with no history of recent antibiotic therapy, 100 persons who underwent antibiotic prophylactic treatment due to high risk of infectious endocarditis and 110 patients treated with β-lactam antibiotics for more than three weeks. Amoxicillin sensitivity was analyzed through Kirby-Bauer testing. Results: We found that of all individuals, 4.4% were carriers of amoxicillin-resistant strains: 2.2% in group I and group II, respectively. The analyses of individuals in which S. mutans was isolated (82% in group I and 60% in group II) showed that the percentage of carriers rose to 5.5% in group I and 7.1 % in group II. Conclusions: Treatment with β-lactam antibiotics remains effective for most oral infections and prophylaxis of infectious endocarditis; however, oral use changes ecosystems and reduces the recovery of S. mutans in the mouth.

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References
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Cómo citar
Barrientos Sánchez, S., Serna Varona, F. S., Díez Ortega, H., & Rodríguez Ciódaro, A. (2015). Resistencia a la amoxicilina de cepas de Streptococcus mutans aisladas de individuos con antibioticoterapia previa y sin esta / Amoxicillin Resistance of Streptococcus mutans Isolated from Individuals with and without Antibiotic Therapy. Universitas Odontologica, 34(72), 101-106. https://doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.uo34-72.racs
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