Este artículo explora los caminos que hay que seguir y los desafíos que hay que enfrentar para fortalecer la educación cívica en las democracias emergentes. En primer lugar, se presenta la idea de emplear temas polémicos como una manera de lograr este objetivo, en especial cuando tales temas se trabajan en conjunto con el pensamiento reflexivo. Luego, apoyados en tres estudios recientes, se entrelazan las características culturales y contextuales de las experiencias escolares y se presenta una tipología emergente dirigida a investigadores y a encargados de formular políticas en distintos contextos.
Civics, civic educationEducación cívica, educación ciudadanaEducação cívica, Educação cidadãCivics, civic education
Center for Civic Education (1991). Civitas. C. F. Bahmueller (ed.). Calabasas, California: Center for Civic Education.
Chiodo, J. J. & Martin, L. A. (2005). What do students have to say about citizenship? an analysis of the concept of citizenship among secondary education students. Journal of Social Studies Research, 29 (1), 23-31.
Cioflanca, A. (2004). A “grammar of exculpation” in communist historiography: Distortion of the history of the Holocaust under Ceausescu. Romanian Journal of Political Science, 4 (2).
Crossa, V. (2005). Converting the ‘small stories’ into ‘big’ ones: a response to Susan Smith‘s “States, markets and an ethic of care.” Political Geography, 24, 29-34.
Curtis, C. K. & Shaver, J. P. (1980). Slow learners and the study of contemporary problems. Social Education, 44, 302-309.
Dewey, J. (1900). The school and society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education. New York: the Free Press.
Dewey, J. (1933). How we think. Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath & Company.
Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Dewey, J. (1960). The theory of the moral life. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
Engle, S. H. & Ochoa, A. S. (1988). Education for democratic citizenship: Decision making in the social studies. New York: teachers College Press.
Erglis, D. (2005). a few episodes of the Holocaust in Krustpils: a microcosm of the Holocaust in occupied Latvia. In V. Nollendorts & E. Oberlander (eds.). The hidden and forbidden history of Latvia under Nazi and Soviet occupations 1940-1991. Riga, Latvia: Institute of the History of Latvia.
Ettlinger, N. (2004). towards a critical theory of untidy geographies: the spatiality of emotions in consumption and production. Feminist Economics, 10 (3).
Ezergailis, A. (1996). The Holocaust in Latvia, 1941-1944: The missing center. Riga, Latvia: Model Printing House.
Feldmanis, I. (2005). Latvia under the occupation of national socialist ger- many 1941-1945. In V. Nollendorts & E. Oberlander (eds.). The hidden and forbidden history of Latvia under Nazi and Soviet occupations 1940-1991. Riga, Latvia: Institute of the History of Latvia.
Fleming, S. B. (2006). Faith, action, and inaction during the Holocaust. Religion in Eastern Europe, 26 (2).
Fluckiger, J. & Wetig, S. (2003). Empowering teachers to foster students‘ character and citizenship: getting teachers and students to discover big ideas in social studies. The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 69 (2).
Friling, T., Ioanid, R. & Ionescu, M. E. (2005). Final report: International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania. Bucharest: Polirom.
Goldenson, D. R. (1978). An alternative view about the role of the secondary school in political socialization: a field experimental study of the development of civil liberties attitudes. Theory and Research in Social Education, 6, 44-72.
Griffin, A. F. (1942). teaching in authoritarian and democratic states. In W. C. Parker (ed.) (1996). Educating the democratic mind. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Harwood, A. M. & Hahn, C. L. (1990). Controversial issues in the classroom. Bloomington, Indiana: Eric Clearinghouse for Social Studies Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED327453).
Hess, D. (2008). Controversial issues and democratic discourse. In L. S. Levstik & C. A. Tyson (eds.). Handbook of research in social studies education. New York: Routledge.
Hess, D. & Posselt, J. (2002). How high school students experience and learn from the discussion of controversial public issues. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 17 (4), 283-314.
Hoyt, M. W. (2006). John Dewey‘s legacy to China and the problems in Chinese society. Transnational Curriculum Inquiry, TCI, 3 (1). available from: http://nitinat.library.ubc.ca/ojs.
Hunt, M. P. & Metcalf, L. E. (1968). Teaching High School Social Studies. New York: Harper and Row.
Ioanid, R. (2000). The Holocaust in Romania: The destruction of Jews and Gypsies under the Antonescu regime, 1940-1944. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee.
Kenez, P. (2006). [Review of the book The treatment of the Holocaust in Hungary and Romania during the post-communist era]. Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies, 24 (3).
Lasley, T. & Biddle, J. (1996). Teaching students to see beyond themselves. The Educational Forum, 60.
Mcgowan, T., Mcgowan, M. J., & Lombard, R. H. (1994). Empowering young citizens for social action. Social Studies & the Young Learner, 7 (1).
Misco, T. (2004). Understanding Japan through the lens of moral education. The Social Studies, 95 (2).
Misco, T. (2007a). Did I forget about the dispositions? Preparing high school graduates for moral life. The Clearing House, 80 (6).
Misco, T. (2007b). Holocaust curriculum development for Latvian schools: arriving at purposes, aims, and goals through curriculum deliberation. Theory and Research in Social Education, 35 (3), 393-426.
Misco, T. (2007c). Using curriculum deliberation to address controversial issues: teaching the Holocaust in Latvian schools. International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership, 2 (8).
Misco, T. (2007d). the frustrations of reader generalizability and grounded theory: alternative considerations for transferability. Journal of Research Practice, 3 (1). article M10. Retrieved October 4, 2007. Available from: http://jrp.icaap.org/index.php/jrp/article/view/45/77.
Misco, T. (2008). “We did also save people”: a study of Holocaust education in Romania after decades of historical silence. Theory and Re- search in Social Education, 36 (2).
Misco, T. & Hamot, G. E. (2007). Post Soviet moral education: the case of Kyrgyzstan. International Education, 36 (2).
Misco, T. & Patterson, N. C. (2007). A study of pre-service teachers‘ conceptualizations of academic freedom and controversial issues. Theory and Research in Social Education, 35 (4), 520-50.
Moraru, A., Popa, R., Toba, M. & Voicu, O. (2003). Intoleranta discriminare extremism. Romania 2003 [Intolerance discrimination extremism. Romania 2003]. Bucharest: Institutul Pentru Politici Publice.
National Council for the Social Studies, NCSS. (1994). Expectations for Excellence: Curriculum Standards for the Social Studies. Washington, D.C.: NCSS.
Oisteanu, A. (2005). The Holocaust remembrance day in Romania. Studia Hebraica, 5, 17-22.
Parker, W. C. (2003). The deliberative approach to education for democracy: Problems and possibilities. In J. J. Patrick, g. E. Hamot & R. S. Leming (eds.). Civic learning in teacher education. Bloomington, Indiana: Eric Clearinghouse.
Patrick, J. J., & Vontz, T. S. (2001). Components of education for democratic citizenship in the preparation of social studies teachers. In J. J. Patrick & R. S. Leming (eds.). Principles and practices of democracy in the education of social studies teachers, Bloomington, Indiana: Eric Clearinghouse.
Pippidi, A. (2004). Anti-Semitism in Romania after 1989: Facts and interpretations. In R. L. Braham (ed.). The treatment of the Holocaust in Hungary and Romania during the post-communist era (pp. 137-166). New York: Columbia University Press.
Remy, R. C. (1972). High school seniors attitudes toward their civics and government instruction. Social Education, 36, 590-597.
Ross, E. W. & Marker, P. M. (2005). (If social studies is wrong) I don’t want to be right. Theory and Research in Social Education, 33 (1).
Rotman, L. (2003). Memory of the Holocaust in communist Romania: From minimization to oblivion (F. Waldman, trans.). In. M. E. Ionescu & L. Rotman (eds.). The Holocaust and Romania (pp. 205-216). Bucharest: Bucharest University.
Shafir, M. (2003a). The Holocaust-gulag post-communist “competition”: an insurmountable obstacle to mutual reconciliation? (F. Waldman, trans.). In. M. E. Ionescu & L. Rotman (eds.). The Holocaust and Romania (pp. 205-216). Bucharest: Bucharest University.
Shafir, M. (2003b). The ‘comparative trivialization’ of the Holocaust. Washington, D.C.: Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
Shafir, M. (2004). Between denial and ‘comparative trivialization’: Holocaust negationism in post-communist east central Europe. In R. L. Braham (ed.). The treatment of the Holocaust in Hungary and Romania during the post-communist era (pp. 43-136). New York: Columbia University Press.
Stranga, A. (2005). The Holocaust in occupied Latvia: 1941-1945. In V. Nollendorts & E. Oberlander (eds.). The hidden and forbidden history of Latvia under Nazi and Soviet occupations 1940-1991. Riga, Latvia: Institute of the History of Latvia.
Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance, and Research. (2004). Liaison projects: Baseline study of Romania. London: author.
Torney-Purta, J., Lehmann, R., Oswald, H. & Schulz, W. (2002). Citizenship and education in twenty-eight countries. Amsterdam: International association for the Evaluation of Education achievement. available from: http://www.wam.umd.edu/~iea.
Viksne, R. (2005). Members of the arajs commando in Soviet court files: Social position, education, reasons for volunteering, penalty. In V. Nollendorts & E. Oberlander (eds.). The hidden and forbidden history of Latvia under Nazi and Soviet occupations 1940-1991. Riga, Latvia: Institute of the History of Latvia.
Weinbaum, L. (2006). The banality of history and memory: Romanian society and the Holocaust. Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism, 45.
Wertsman, V. F. (2004). The Holocaust in Romania and the denial of history. Multicultural Review, 13 (4), 120-121.
Zisere, B. (2005). The memory of the Shoah in the post-Soviet Latvia. East European Jewish Affairs, 35 (2), 155-165.
Zuroff, E. (2006, July 5). When remembrance fails. The Jerusalem Post, p. 15.