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Melisa González Díaz

Leidy Angélica Motta Vargas

Andrey Moreno Torres

Andrés Ignacio Chala Galindo

Herlinto Alveiro Tupaz Erira

Dabeiba Adriana García Robayo

Resumen

Antecedentes: el cáncer escamocelular de cabeza y cuello puede ser causado principalmente por un alto consumo de cigarrillo y alcohol. Sin embargo, cerca de un 30 % de los tumores puede ser ocasionado por una infección por virus del papiloma humano (VPH), principalmente en la orofaringe. En la última década, la frecuencia de este tipo de tumor se ha incrementado mundialmente. Propósito: analizar las características y diferencias que presentan los tumores de orofaringe asociados o no a la infección por VPH. Métodos: se revisó la literatura sobre la asociación entre el VPH, el cáncer de orofaringe escamocelular y su pronóstico. Hallazgos: el VPH es un virus oncogénico y se calcula que cerca de 40 tipos virales pueden infectar al ser humano, de los cuales 14 están relacionados directamente con procesos carcinogénicos. Varios estudios muestran que el genotipo VPH 16 se presenta con mayor frecuencia y agresividad que los otros genotipos de VPH asociados con este tipo de tumor. El cáncer de orofaringe presenta un mayor predominio en el género masculino, posiblemente relacionado con prácticas como el sexo oral. Recientemente, se ha establecido un mejor pronóstico para tumores VPH positivos en comparación con los negativos. Esto se debe a que los primeros presentan una mejor respuesta a la quimioterapia y a la radioterapia, lo que da como resultado una tasa de supervivencia global favorable (p = 0,046, log-rank), según estimaciones por curvas de Kaplan-Meier. Background: Squamous cell cancer of the head and neck can be caused mainly by high cigarette and alcohol consumption. However, about 30% of tumors can be caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) mainly in the oropharynx. In the last decade, the frequency of this tumor has increased worldwide. Purpose: To analyze the characteristics and differences of oropharyngeal tumors associated or not with HPV infection. Methods: A review of the literature on the association between HPV, oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer, and its prognosis was performed. Findings: HPV is an oncogenic virus. It is estimated that about 40 HPV types can infect humans, of which 14 are directly related to carcinogenic processes. Several studies show that the HPV 16 genotype occurs more frequently and aggressively than other HPV genotypes associated with this type of tumor. Oropharynx cancer has a higher prevalence in males, possibly related to practices such as oral sex. Recently, a better prognosis for HPV-positive tumors has been observed when compared to negative tumors. This is because the former have a better response to chemotherapy and radiation, which results in a favorable overall survival rate (p=0.046, log-rank), as estimated through Kaplan-Meier curves. 

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Cómo citar
González Díaz, M., Motta Vargas, L., Moreno Torres, A., Chala Galindo, A., Tupaz Erira, H., & García Robayo, D. (2015). La infección por virus del papiloma humano afecta el pronóstico del cáncer orofaríngeo escamocelular. Revisión de la literatura / Human Papillomavirus Infection Affects Squamous Oropharyngeal Cancer Prognosis. Literature Review. Universitas Odontologica, 33(71), 67-75. https://doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.uo33-71.ivph
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