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Fredy Omar Gamboa Jaimes

Resumen

Antecedentes: la caries dental es un proceso patológico infeccioso, multifactorial, localizado y transmisible que destruye los tejidos duros dentales. En términos ecológicos, esta enfermedad es consecuencia de un desequilibrio en el ecosistema oral que lleva al predominio de una flora antes considerada normal en cavidad oral y ahora convertida en patógena. Los principales microrganismos asociados con la producción de caries son, en orden de frecuencia: 1) Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) (principalmente el serotipo c) y en menor proporción S. sobrinus y S. gordonii; y 2) especies de Lactobacillus y Actinomyces. En general, en la comunidad científica hay consenso en señalar al S. mutans como el microrganismo más importante en caries dental. Por lo tanto, las estrategias de aislamiento, identificación, tipificación, prevención y control se dirigen principalmente hacia este. Propósito: este artículo, con base en experiencias de investigación propias y contrastadas con las de otros grupos de investigación, describe la microbiología y las estrategias de aislamiento, recuento e identificación del S. mutans a partir de muestras de placa dental y saliva. También se discuten aspectos de fenotipificación, genotipificación, detección fenotípica de bacteriocinas y de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana en cepas de S. mutans. Conclusión: el correcto conocimiento de las características fenotípicas y genotípicas del S. mutans debe conducir a diseñar mejores estrategias de prevención y control. Background: Dental caries is a localized, transmissible, infectious, and pathological process that leads to the destruction of the dental hard tissue. In ecological terms, this disease is caused by an imbalance in the oral ecosystem leading to the dominance of a flora, previously considered normal in the mouth and now treated as pathogenic. The main microorganisms associated to cariogenesis are, in order of frequency: (1) Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) (mainly serotype c) and to a lesser extent S. sobrinus and S. gordonii; and (2) species of Lactobacillus and Actinomyces. Overall, the scientific community's consensus identifies S. mutans as the most important microorganism in dental caries. Therefore, isolation, identification, characterization, prevention and control strategies are directed primarily against S. mutans. Purpose: Based on our own research experience and contrasting it with that of other research groups this article describes the microbiology, isolation strategies, counting, and identification of S. mutans from dental plaque and saliva samples. It also depicts aspects of phenotyping, genotyping, phenotypic detection of bacteriocins and antimicrobial susceptibility of S. mutans strains. Conclusion: The correct understanding of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of S. mutans should lead to designing better prevention and control strategies.

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Keywords
References
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Cómo citar
Gamboa Jaimes, F. (2015). Identificación y caracterización microbiológica, fenotípica y genotípica del Streptococcus mutans: experiencias de investigación / Microbiological, Phenotypic, and Genotypic Characterization of Streptococcus mutans: Research Experiences. Universitas Odontologica, 33(71), 76-84. https://doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.uo33-71.icmf
Sección
Dossier Temático
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