Caries dental: ¿influyen la genética y la epigenética en su etiología? Revisión de la literatura / Dental Caries: ¿Do Genetics and/or Epigenetics Influence its Etiology? Literature Review

Sandra Janeth Gutiérrez Prieto, Dabeiba Adriana García Robayo, Stephanie Santacoloma Jiménez, Juan Pablo Mejía Barbosa

Abstract


La etiología de la caries dental es una preocupación permanente en la investigación odontológica. La caries, reconocida como una de las enfermedades más antiguas, se caracteriza por ser crónica, infecciosa, no contagiosa y de origen multifactorial, con gran impacto en la salud pública. Hoy en día, además de todos los factores involucrados en la tríada de la caries, se ha encontrado que también los factores genéticos y posiblemente epigenéticos podrían contribuir a incrementar el riesgo y susceptibilidad a la caries. Entre estos están la variación en los factores inherentes al huésped, como la herencia, los trastornos en la formación del esmalte y la dentina, la respuesta inmune alterada a microrganismos cariogénicos y su asociación con el antígeno leucocitario humano. El propósito de este artículo es analizar la relación que podría existir entre la etiología de la caries dental y la genética y cómo desde la epigenética también podrían interpretarse algunas de sus causas.

 

The etiology of dental caries is a constant concern in dental research. Recognized as one of the oldest diseases, dental caries is a chronic, infectious, non-contagious, multifactorial disease that has a high impact on public health. Today, besides all the factors involved in the triad of caries, it has been found that genetic and epigenetic factors could contribute to increase the risk and susceptibility to caries. It includes variations of factors inherent to the host, such as heredity, abnormal enamel and dentin formation, altered immune response to cariogenic microorganisms and their association with the human leukocyte antigen. The purpose of this article is to analyze the relationship that may exist between dental caries etiology and genetics, and how some causes could be identified from the point of view of epigenetics.


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References


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