Publicado Jan 1, 2017



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Luis Miguel Salazar

Alejandro De La Hoz

Rafael Ruiz Gaviria

Sandra Liliana Valderrama

Carlos Gómez Restrepo

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Resumen

Introducción: el sistema nervioso central es uno de los órganos afectados, de manera directa e indirecta, por el VIH; adicionalmente, los trastornos psiquiátricos son más frecuentes en esta población. Objetivo: comprender la patogénesis, las manifestaciones clínicas y el manejo de las enfermedades neuropsiquiátricas en la población con VIH. Métodos: se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos Medline, Embase, SciELO, LILACS y PsychInfo utilizando término libres y MeSH. Resultados: los trastornos neuropsiquiátricos generan un impacto negativo en el tratamiento y seguimiento de los pacientes con VIH, lo cual disminuye su adherencia al tratamiento y aumenta las dificultades en su manejo integral. Llamativamente, existe una falta de estudios latinoamericanos en esta área. 

Keywords

HIV, neuropsychiatric disorders, Colombia.VIH, trastornos neuropsiquiátricos, Colombia

References
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10. Collins PY, Holman AR, Freeman MC, Patel V. What is the relevance of mental health to HIV/AIDS care and treatment programs in developing countries?: A systematic review. AIDS Lond Engl. 2006;20(12):1571-82.
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23. Mind Exchange Working Group. Assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder: a consensus report of the mind exchange program. Clin Infect Dis Off Publ Infect Dis Soc Am. 2013;56(7):1004-17.
24. McDonnell J, Haddow L, Daskalopoulou M, Lampe F, Speakman A, Gilson R, et al. Minimal cognitive impairment in UK HIV-positive men who have sex with men: Effect of case definitions and comparison with the general population and HIV-negative men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1999. 2014;67(2):120-7.
25. Watkins CC, Treisman GJ. Neuropsychiatric complications of aging with HIV. J Neurovirol. 2012;18(4):277-90.
26. Neuhaus J, Jacobs DR, Baker JV, Calmy A, Duprez D, La Rosa A, et al. Markers of inflammation, coagulation, and renal function are elevated in adults with HIV infection. J Infect Dis. 2010;201(12):1788-95.
27. Albright AV, Soldan SS, González-Scarano F. Pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus-induced neurological disease. J Neurovirol. 2003;9(2):222-7.
28. Kovalevich J, Langford D. Neuronal toxicity in HIV CNS disease. Future Virol. 2012;7(7):687-98.
29. Bachis A, Mocchetti I. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is neuroprotective against human immunodeficiency virus-1 envelope proteins. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1053:247-57.
30. Muresanu DF. Neuroprotection and neuroplasticity: A holistic approach and future perspectives. J Neurol Sci. 2007;257(1-2):38-43.
31. Avdoshina V, Garzino-Demo A, Bachis A, Monaco MCG, Maki PM, Tractenberg RE, et al. HIV-1 decreases the levels of neurotrophins in human lymphocytes. AIDS Lond Engl. 2011;25(8):1126-8.
32. Desai S, Ronquillo R, Usuga X, Martinson J, Adeyemi O, Tenorio A, et al. Immune senescence, activation and abnormal T cell homeostasis despite effective HAART, a hallmark of early aging in HIV. Documento procedente de la 16th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Montreal, Canada; 2009.
33. Plaeger SF, Collins BS, Musib R, Deeks SG, Read S, Embry A. Immune activation in the pathogenesis of treated chronic HIV disease: a workshop summary. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012;28(5):469-77.
34. Al-Hakeim HK, Al-Rammahi DA, Al-Dujaili AH. IL-6, IL-18, sIL-2R, and TNFα proinflammatory markers in depression and schizophrenia patients who are free of overt inflammation. J Affect Disord. 2015;182:106-14.
35. Ciesla JA, Roberts JE. Meta-analysis of the relationship between HIV infection and risk for depressive disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2001 May;158(5):725-30.
36. Secor AM, Wahome E, Micheni M, Rao D, Simoni JM, Sanders EJ, et al. Depression, substance abuse and stigma among men who have sex with men in coastal Kenya. AIDS Lond Engl. 2015 Dec;29 Suppl 3:S251-9.
37. Ferrando SJ, Freyberg Z. Treatment of depression in HIV positive individuals: a critical review. Int Rev Psychiatry Abingdon Engl. 2008 Feb;20(1):61-71.
38. Carrico AW, Riley ED, Johnson MO, Charlebois ED, Neilands TB, Remien RH, et al. Psychiatric risk factors for HIV disease progression: the role of inconsistent patterns of antiretroviral therapy utilization. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1999. 2011;56(2):146-50.
39. Bengtson AM, Pence BW, O’Donnell J, Thielman N, Heine A, Zinski A, et al. Improvements in depression and changes in quality of life among HIV-infected adults. AIDS Care. 2015;27(1):47-53.
40. Galvan FH, Bing EG, Fleishman JA, London AS, Caetano R, Burnam MA, et al. The prevalence of alcohol consumption and heavy drinking among people with HIV in the United States: results from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study. J Stud Alcohol. 2002;63(2):179-86.
41. Míguez-Burbano MJ, Espinoza L, Whitehead NE, Bryant VE, Vargas M, Cook RL, et al. Brain derived neurotrophic factor and cognitive status: the delicate balance among people living with HIV, with and without alcohol abuse. Curr HIV Res. 2014;12(4):254-64.
42. Wandera B, Tumwesigye NM, Nankabirwa JI, Kambugu AD, Parkes-Ratanshi R, Mafigiri DK, et al. Alcohol consumption among HIV-infected persons in a large urban HIV clinic in Kampala Uganda: A constellation of harmful behaviors. PloS One. 2015;10(5):e0126236.
43. Ferro EG, Weikum D, Vagenas P, Copenhaver MM, Gonzales P, Peinado J, et al. Alcohol use disorders negatively influence antiretroviral medication adherence among men who have sex with men in Peru. AIDS Care. 2015;27(1):93-104.
44. American Psychiatry Association A. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.
45. Chander G, Himelhoch S, Moore RD. Substance abuse and psychiatric disorders in HIV-positive patients: Epidemiology and impact on antiretroviral therapy. Drugs. 2006;66(6):769-89.
1. Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU). Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio Informe de 2014. New York; 2014.
2. United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Global report: UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic 2013. New York; 2013.
3. Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, editors. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s principles and practice of infectious diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier; 2010.
4. May MT, Gompels M, Delpech V, Porter K, Orkin C, Kegg S, et al. Impact on life expectancy of HIV-1 positive individuals of CD4+ cell count and viral load response to antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Lond Engl. 2014;28(8):1193-202.
5. Palella FJ, Delaney KM, Moorman AC, Loveless MO, Fuhrer J, Satten GA, et al. Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(13):853-60.
6. Beck EJ, Mandalia S, Williams I, Power A, Newson R, Molesworth A, et al. Decreased morbidity and use of hospital services in English HIV-infected individuals with increased uptake of anti-retroviral therapy 1996-1997. National Prospective Monitoring System Steering Group. AIDS Lond Engl. 1999;13(15):2157-64.
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8. Lewden C, Chene G, Morlat P, Raffi F, Dupon M, Dellamonica P, et al. HIV-infected adults with a CD4 cell count greater than 500 cells/mm3 on long-term combination antiretroviral therapy reach same mortality rates as the general population. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1999. 2007 Sep 1;46(1):72-7.
9. Prince M, Patel V, Saxena S, Maj M, Maselko J, Phillips MR, et al. No health without mental health. Lancet Lond Engl. 2007 Sep 8;370(9590):859-77.
10. Collins PY, Holman AR, Freeman MC, Patel V. What is the relevance of mental health to HIV/AIDS care and treatment programs in developing countries?: A systematic review. AIDS Lond Engl. 2006;20(12):1571-82.
11. Shacham E, Onen NF, Donovan MF, Rosenburg N, Overton ET. Psychiatric Diagnoses among an HIV-Infected Outpatient Clinic Population. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2014;
12. Pablo E. Vera-Villarroel, Viviana Pérez, Erika Moreno, Francisca Allende. Diferencias en variables psicosociales en sujetos VIH homosexuales y heterosexuales. Int J Clin Health Psychol. 2004;4(1):55-67.
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15. Melis G, Pia G, Piras I, Tusconi M. Mental disorders and HIV infection in the emergency department: epidemiology and gender differences. Intern Emerg Med. 2015 Jun;10(4):465-9. doi: 10.1007/s11739-014-1175-3
16. Ferrando SJ, Freyberg Z. Neuropsychiatric aspects of infectious diseases. Crit Care Clin. 2008;24(4):889-919.
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18. Turner BJ, Laine C, Cosler L, Hauck WW. Relationship of gender, depression, and health care delivery with antiretroviral adherence in HIV-infected drug users. J Gen Intern Med. 2003 Apr;18(4):248-57.
19. Cook JA, Grey D, Burke-Miller J, Cohen MH, Anastos K, Gandhi M, et al. Effects of treated and untreated depressive symptoms on highly active antiretroviral therapy use in a US multi-site cohort of HIV-positive women. AIDS Care. 2006 Feb;18(2):93-100.
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22. Antinori A, Arendt G, Becker JT, Brew BJ, Byrd DA, Cherner M, et al. Updated research nosology for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Neurology. 2007;69(18):1789-99.
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Cómo citar
Salazar, L. M., De La Hoz, A., Ruiz Gaviria, R., Valderrama, S. L., & Gómez Restrepo, C. (2017). Trastornos neuropsiquiátricos en la población con VIH: una revisión narrativa. Universitas Medica, 58(1). https://doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.umed58-1.tnpv
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