Publicado Jan 18, 2021



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Juan Carlos Gómez Vega https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4385-5063

Maria Isabel Ocampo-Navia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1148-7523

Juan Carlos Acevedo González https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7439-4116

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Resumen

La espasticidad es un desorden motor que hace parte del síndrome de motoneurona superior y se caracteriza por un incremento dependiente de la velocidad del reflejo tónico de estiramiento o de tono muscular; se acompaña de reflejos miotendinosos exagerados e hiperexcitabilidad del reflejo de estiramiento. Es muy frecuente en pacientes con síndrome de motoneurona superior secundario a diversas patologías como ataque cerebrovascular, lesiones medulares, esclerosis múltiple y parálisis cerebral. Un abordaje multidisciplinario e individualizado es fundamental en el tratamiento de los pacientes; e incluye como pilares el manejo no farmacológico, farmacológico, neuroquirúrgico y ortopédico. El presente trabajo pretende realizar una revisión no sistematizada pero actualizada sobre la historia, epidemiología, fisiopatología, abordaje diagnóstico y terapéutico de la espasticidad, tanto en la población adulta como en la pediátrica; así como plantear un algoritmo terapéutico.

Keywords

Espasticidad, Distonía, Hipertonía muscular, Neurofarmacología, Síndrome de motoneurona superiorSpasticity, Dystonia, Muscle hypertonia, Neuropharmacology, Upper motor neuron syndrome

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Cómo citar
Gómez Vega, J. C., Ocampo-Navia, M. I., & Acevedo González, J. C. (2021). Espasticidad. Universitas Medica, 62(1). https://doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.umed62-1.espa
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